Category Archives: Interfaith

Birthday of Jesus Christ – Christmas

Christmas—December the 25th—is a day which has been set apart by the Christian church on which to celebrate the birth of their lord Christ Jesus, and is considered by the majority of persons to be really the day on which he was born. This is altogether erroneous, as will be seen upon examination of the subject.
There was no uniformity in the period of observing the Nativity among the early Christian churches; some held the festival in the month of May or April, others in January.[359:1]
The year in which he was born is also as uncertain as the month or day. “The year in which it happened,” says Mosheim, the ecclesiastical historian, “has not hitherto been fixed with certainty, notwithstanding the deep and laborious researches of the learned.”[359:2]
According to Irenæus (A. D. 190), on the authority of “The Gospel,” and “all the elders who were conversant in Asia with John, the disciple of the Lord,” Christ Jesus lived to be nearly, if not quite, fifty years of age. If this celebrated Christian father is correct, and who can say he is not, Jesus was born some twenty years before the time which has been assigned as that of his birth.[359:3]
The Rev. Dr. Giles says:
“Concerning the time of Christ’s birth there are even greater doubts than about the place; for, though the four Evangelists have noticed several contemporary facts, which would seem to settle this point, yet on comparing these dates with the general history of the period, we meet with serious discrepancies, which involve the subject in the greatest uncertainty.”[359:4]
Again he says:
“Not only do we date our time from the exact year in which Christ is said to have been born, but our ecclesiastical calendar has determined with scrupulous minuteness the day and almost the hour at which every particular of Christ’s wonderful life is stated to have happened. All this is implicitly believed by millions; yet all these things are among the most uncertain and shadowy that history has recorded. We have no clue to either the day or the time of year, or even the year itself, in which Christ was born.[360:1]
Some Christian writers fix the year 4 B. C., as the time when he was born, others the year 5 B. C., and again others place his time of birth at about 15 B. C. The Rev. Dr. Geikie, speaking of this, in his Life of Christ, says:
“The whole subject is very uncertain. Ewald appears to fix the date of the birth at five years earlier than our era. Petavius and Usher fix it on the 25th of December, five years before our era. Bengel on the 25th of December, four years before our era; Anger and Winer, four years before our era, in the Spring; Scaliger, three years before our era, in October; St. Jerome, three years before our era, on December 25th; Eusebius, two years before our era, on January 6th; and Idler, seven years before our era, inDecember.”[360:2]
Albert Barnes writes in a manner which implies that he knew all about the year (although he does not give any authorities), but knew nothing about the month. He says:
“The birth of Christ took place four years before the common era. That era began to be used about A. D. 526, being first employed by Dionysius, and is supposed to have been placed about four years too late. Some make the difference two, others three, four, five, and even eight years. He was born at the commencement of the last year of the reign of Herod, or at the close of the year preceding.”[360:3]
“The Jews sent out their flocks into the mountainous and desert regions during the summer months, and took them up in the latter part of October or the first of November, when the cold weather commenced. . . . It is clear from this that our Saviour was born before the 25th of December, or before what we call Christmas. At that time it is cold, and especially in the high and mountainous regions about BethlehemGod has concealed the time of his birth. There is no way to ascertain it. By different learned men it has been fixed at each month in the year.”[360:4]
Canon Farrar writes with a little more caution, as follows:
“Although the date of Christ’s birth cannot be fixed with absolute certainty, there is at least a large amount of evidence to render itprobable that he was born four years before our present era. It is universally admitted that our received chronology, which is not older than Dionysius Exignus, in the sixth century, is wrong. But all attempts to discover the month and the day are useless. No data whatever exists to enable us to determine them with even approximate accuracy.”[360:5]
Bunsen attempts to show (on the authority of Irenæus, above quoted), that Jesus was born some fifteen years before the time assigned, and that he lived to be nearly, if not quite, fifty years of age.[361:1]
According to Basnage,[361:2] the Jews placed his birth near a century sooner than the generally assumed epoch. Others have placed it even in the third century B. C. This belief is founded on a passage in the “Book of Wisdom,”[361:3] written about 250 B. C., which is supposed to refer to Christ Jesus, and none other. In speaking of some individual who lived at that time, it says:
“He professeth to have the knowledge of God, and he calleth himself the child of the Lord. He was made to reprove our thoughts. He is grievous unto us even to behold; for his life is not like other men’s, his ways are of another fashion. We are esteemed of him as counterfeits; he abstaineth from our ways as from filthiness; he pronounceth the end of the just to be blessed, and maketh his boast that God is his father. Let us see if his words be true; and let us prove what shall happen in the end of him. For if the just man be the son of God, he (God) will help him, and deliver him from the hand of his enemies. Let us examine him with despitefulness and torture, that we may know his meekness, and prove his patience. Let us condemn him with a shameful death; for by his own saying he shall be respected.”
This is a very important passage. Of course, the church claim it to be a prophecy of what Christ Jesus was to do and suffer, but this does not explain it.
If the writer of the “Gospel according to Luke” is correct, Jesus was not born until about A. D. 10, for he explicitly tells us that this event did not happen until Cyrenius was governor of Syria.[361:4] Now it is well known that Cyrenius was not appointed to this office until long after the death of Herod (during whose reign the Matthew narrator informs us Jesus was born[361:5]), and that the taxing spoken of by the Luke narrator as having taken place at this time, did not take place until about ten years after the time at which, according to the Matthew narrator, Jesus was born.[361:6]
Eusebius, the first ecclesiastical historian,[361:7] places his birth at the time Cyrenius was governor of Syria, and therefore at about A. D. 10. His words are as follows:
“It was the two and fortieth year after the reign of Augustus the Emperor, and the eight and twentieth year after the subduing of Egypt, and the death of Antonius and Cleopatra, when last of all the Ptolemies in Egypt ceased to bear rule, when our Saviour and Lord Jesus Christ, at the time of the first taxing—Cyrenius, then President of Syria—was born in Bethlehem, a city of Judea, according unto the prophecies in that behalf premised.”[362:1]
Had the Luke narrator known anything about Jewish history, he never would have made so gross a blunder as to place the taxing of Cyrenius in the days of Herod, and would have saved the immense amount of labor that it has taken in endeavoring to explain away the effects of his ignorance. One explanation of this mistake is, that there were two assessments, one about the time Jesus was born, and the other ten years after; but this has entirely failed. Dr. Hooykaas, speaking of this, says:
“The Evangelist (Luke) falls into the most extraordinary mistakes throughout. In the first place, history is silent as to a census of the whole (Roman) world ever having been made at all. In the next place, though Quirinius certainly did make such a register in Judea and Samaria, it did not extend to Galilee; so that Joseph’s household was not affected by it. Besides, it did not take place until ten years after the death of Herod, when his son Archelaus was deposed by the emperor, and the districts of Judea and Samaria were thrown into a Roman province. Under the reign of Herod, nothing of the kind took place, nor was there any occasion for it. Finally, at the time of the birth of Jesus, the Governor of Syria was not Quirinius, but Quintus Sentius Saturninus.”[362:2]
The institution of the festival of the Nativity of Christ Jesus being held on the 25th of December, among the Christians, is attributed to Telesphorus, who flourished during the reign of Antonius Pius (A. D. 138-161), but the first certain traces of it are found about the time of the Emperor Commodus (A. D. 180-192).[362:3]
For a long time the Christians had been trying to discover upon what particular day Jesus had possibly or probably come into the world; and conjectures and traditions that rested upon absolutely no foundation, led one to the 20th of May, another to the 19th or 20th of April, and a third to the 5th of January. At last the opinion of the community at Rome gained the upper hand, and the 25th of December was fixed upon.[362:4] It was not until the fifth century, however, that this day had been generally agreed upon.[362:5] How it happened that this day finally became fixed as the birthday of Christ Jesus, may be inferred from what we shall now see.
On the first moment after midnight of the 24th of December (i. e., on the morning of the 25th), nearly all the nations of the earth, as if by common consent, celebrated the accouchement of the “Queen of Heaven,” of the “Celestial Virgin” of the sphere, and the birth of the god Sol.
In India this is a period of rejoicing everywhere.[363:1] It is a great religious festival, and the people decorate their houses with garlands, and make presents to friends and relatives. This custom is of very great antiquity.[363:2]
In China, religious solemnities are celebrated at the time of the winter solstice, the last week in December, when all shops are shut up, and the courts are closed.[363:3]
Buddha, the son of the Virgin Mâya, on whom, according to Chinese tradition, “the Holy Ghost” had descended, was said to have been born on Christmas day, December 25th.[363:4]
Among the ancient Persians their most splendid ceremonials were in honor of their Lord and Saviour Mithras; they kept his birthday, with many rejoicings, on the 25th of December.
The author of the “Celtic Druids” says:
“It was the custom of the heathen, long before the birth of Christ, to celebrate the birth-day of their gods,” and that, “the 25th of December was a great festival with the Persians, who, in very early times, celebrated the birth of their god Mithras.”[363:5]
The Rev. Joseph B. Gross, in his “Heathen Religion,” also tells us that:
“The ancient Persians celebrated a festival in honor of Mithras on the first day succeeding the Winter Solstice, the object of which was to commemorate the Birth of Mithras.”[363:6]
Among the ancient Egyptians, for centuries before the time of Christ Jesus, the 25th of December was set aside as the birthday of their gods. M. Le Clerk De Septchenes speaks of it as follows:
“The ancient Egyptians fixed the pregnancy of Isis (the Queen of Heaven, and the Virgin Mother of the Saviour Horus), on the last days of March, and towards the end of December they placed the commemoration of her delivery.”[363:7]
Mr. Bonwick, in speaking of Horus, says:
“He is the great God-loved of Heaven. His birth was one of the greatest mysteries of the Egyptian religion. Pictures representing it appeared on the walls of temples. One passed through the holy Adytum[364:1] to the still more sacred quarter of the temple known as the birth-place of Horus. He was presumably the child of Deity. At Christmas time, or that answering to our festival, his image was brought out of that sanctuary with peculiar ceremonies, as the image of the infant Bambino[364:2] is still brought out and exhibited in Rome.”[364:3]
Rigord observes that the Egyptians not only worshiped a Virgin Mother “prior to the birth of our Saviour, but exhibited the effigy of her son lying in the manger, in the manner the infant Jesus was afterwards laid in the cave at Bethlehem.”[364:4]
The “Chronicles of Alexandria,” an ancient Christian work, says:
“Watch how Egypt has constructed the childbirth of a Virgin, and the birth of her son, who was exposed in a crib to the adoration of the people.”[364:5]
Osiris, son of the “Holy Virgin,” as they called Ceres, or Neith, his mother, was born on the 25th of December.[364:6]
This was also the time celebrated by the ancient Greeks as being the birthday of Hercules. The author of “The Religion of the Ancient Greeks” says:
“The night of the Winter Solstice, which the Greeks named the triple night, was that which they thought gave birth to Hercules.”[364:7]
He further says:
“It has become an epoch of singular importance in the eyes of the Christian, who has destined it to celebrate the birth of the Saviour, the true Sun of Justice, who alone came to dissipate the darkness of ignorance.”[364:8]
Bacchus, also, was born at early dawn on the 25th of December. Mr. Higgins says of him:
“The birth-place of Bacchus, called Sabizius or Sabaoth, was claimed by several places in Greece; but on Mount Zelmissus, in Thrace, his worship seems to have been chiefly celebrated. He was born of a virgin on the 25th of December, and was always called the Saviour. In his Mysteries, he was shown to the people, as an infant is by the Christians at this day, on Christmas-day morning, in Rome.”[364:9]
The birthday of Adonis was celebrated on the 25th of December. This celebration is spoken of by Tertullian, Jerome, and other Fathers of the Church,[365:1]who inform us that the ceremonies took place in a cave, and that the cave in which they celebrated his mysteries in Bethlehem, was that in which Christ Jesus was born.
This was also a great holy day in ancient Rome. The Rev. Mr. Gross says:
“In Rome, before the time of Christ, a festival was observed on the 25th of December, under the name of ‘Natalis Solis Invicti‘ (Birthday of Sol the Invincible). It was a day of universal rejoicings, illustrated by illuminations and public games.”[365:2] “All public business was suspended, declarations of war and criminal executions were postponed, friends made presents to one another, and the slaves were indulged with great liberties.”[365:3]
A few weeks before the winter solstice, the Calabrian shepherds came into Rome to play on the pipes. Ovid alludes to this when he says:
“Ante Deûm matrem cornu tibicen adunco
Cum canit, exiguæ quis stipis aera neget.”
—(Epist. i. l. ii.)
i. e.,
“When to the mighty mother pipes the swain,
Grudge not a trifle for his pious strain.”
This practice is kept up to the present day.
The ancient Germans, for centuries before “the true Sun of Justice” was ever heard of, celebrated annually, at the time of the Winter solstice, what they called their Yule-feast. At this feast agreements were renewed, the gods were consulted as to the future, sacrifices were made to them, and the time was spent in jovial hospitality. Many features of this festival, such as burning the yule-log on Christmas-eve, still survive among us.[365:4]
Yule was the old name for Christmas. In French it is called Noel, which is the Hebrew or Chaldee word Nule.[365:5]
The greatest festival of the year celebrated among the ancient Scandinavians, was at the Winter solstice. They called the night upon which it was observed, the “Mother-night.” This feast was named Jul—hence is derived the word Yule—and was celebrated in honor of Freyr (son of the Supreme God Odin, and the goddess Frigga), who was born on that day. Feasting, nocturnal assemblies, and all the demonstrations of a most dissolute joy, were then authorized by the general usage. At this festival the principal guests received presents—generally horses, swords, battle-axes, and gold rings—at their departure.[365:6]
The festival of the 25th of December was celebrated by the ancient Druids, in Great Britain and Ireland, with great fires lighted on the tops of hills.[366:1]
Godfrey Higgins says:
“Stuckley observes that the worship of Mithra was spread all over Gaul and Britain. The Druids kept this night as a great festival, and called the day following it Nolagh or Noel, or the day of regeneration, and celebrated it with great fires on the tops of their mountains, which they repeated on the day of the Epiphany or twelfth night. The Mithraic monuments, which are common in Britain, have been attributed to the Romans, but this festival proves that the Mithraic worship was there prior to their arrival.”[366:2]
This was also a time of rejoicing in Ancient Mexico. Acosta says:
“In the first month, which in Peru they call Rayme, and answering to our December, they made a solemn feast called Capacrayme (the Winter Solstice), wherein they made many sacrifices and ceremonies, which continued many days.”[366:3]
The evergreens, and particularly the mistletoe, which are used all over the Christian world at Christmas time, betray its heathen origin. Tertullian, a Father of the Church, who flourished about A. D. 200, writing to his brethren, affirms it to be “rank idolatry” to deck their doors “with garlands or flowers, on festival days, according to the custom of the heathen.”[366:4]
This shows that the heathen in those days, did as the Christians do now. What have evergreens, and garlands, and Christmas trees, to do with Christianity? Simply nothing. It is the old Yule-feast which was held by all the northern nations, from time immemorial, handed down to, and observed at the present day. In the greenery with which Christians deck their houses and temples of worship, and in the Christmas-trees laden with gifts, we unquestionably see a relic of the symbols by which our heathen forefathers signified their faith in the powers of the returning sun to clothe the earth again with green, and hang new fruit on the trees. Foliage, such as the laurel, myrtle, ivy, or oak, and in general, all evergreens, were Dionysiac plants, that is, symbols of the generative power, signifying perpetuity of youth and vigor.[366:5]
Among the causes, then, that co-operated in fixing this period—December 25th—as the birthday of Christ Jesus, was, as we have seen, that almost every ancient nation of the earth held a festival on this day in commemoration of the birth of their virgin-born god.
On this account the Christians adopted it as the time of the birth of their God. Mr. Gibbon, speaking of this in his “Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire,” says:
“The Roman Christians, ignorant of the real date of his (Christ’s) birth, fixed the solemn festival to the 25th of December, the Brumalia, or Winter Solstice, when the Pagans annually celebrated the birth of Sol.”[367:1]
And Mr. King, in his “Gnostics and their Remains,” says:
“The ancient festival held on the 25th of December in honor of the ‘Birthday of the Invincible One,’ and celebrated by the ‘great games’ at the circus, was afterwards transferred to the commemoration of the birth of Christ, the precise day of which many of the Fathers confess was then unknown.”[367:2]
St. Chrysostom, who flourished about A. D. 390, referring to this Pagan festival, says:
On this day, also, the birth of Christ was lately fixed at Rome, in order that whilst the heathen were busy with their profaneceremonies, the Christians might perform their holy rites undisturbed.”[367:3]
Add to this the fact that St. Gregory, a Christian Father of the third century, was instrumental in, and commended by other Fathers for, changing Pagan festivals into Christian holidays, for the purpose, as they said, of drawing the heathen to the religion of Christ.[367:4]
As Dr. Hooykaas remarks, the church was always anxious to meet the heathen half way, by allowing them to retain the feasts they were accustomed to, only giving them a Christian dress, or attaching a new or Christian signification to them.[367:5]
In doing these, and many other such things, which we shall speak of in our chapter on “Paganism in Christianity,” the Christian Fathers, instead of drawing the heathen to their religion, drew themselves into Paganism.


FOOTNOTES:
[359:1]See Bible for Learners vol. iii. p. 66; Chambers’s Encyclo., art. “Christmas.”
[359:2]Eccl. Hist., vol. i. p. 53. Quoted in Taylor‘s Diegesis, p. 104.
[359:3]See Chapter XL., this work.
[359:4]Hebrew and Christian Records, vol. ii. p. 189.
[360:1]Hebrew and Christian Records, p. 194.
[360:2]Life of Christ, vol. i. p. 556.
[360:3]Barnes’ Notes, vol. ii. p. 402.
[360:4]Ibid. p. 25.
[360:5]Farrar’s Life of Christ, App., pp. 673, 4.
[361:1]Bible Chronology, pp. 73, 74.
[361:2]Hist. de Juif.
[361:3]Chap. ii. 13-20.
[361:4]Luke, ii. 1-7.
[361:5]Matt. ii. 1.
[361:6]See Josephus: Antiq., bk. xviii. ch. i. sec. i.
[361:7]Eusebius was Bishop of Cesarea from A. D. 315 to 340, in which he died, in the 70th year of his age, thus playing his great part in life chiefly under the reigns of Constantine the Great and his son Constantine.
[362:1]Eusebius: Eccl. Hist., lib. 1, ch. vi.
[362:2]Bible for Learners, vol. iii. p. 56.
[362:3]See Chamber’s Encyclo., art. “Christmas.”
[362:4]See Bible for Learners, vol. iii. p. 66.
[362:5]“By the fifth century, however, whether from the influence of some tradition, or from the desire to supplant Heathen Festivals of that period of the year, such as the Saturnalia, the 25th of December had been generally agreed upon.” (Encyclopædia Brit., art. “Christmas.”)
[363:1]See Monier Williams: Hinduism, p. 181.
[363:2]See Prog. Relig. Ideas, vol. i. p. 126.
[363:3]Ibid. 216.
[363:4]See Bunsen: The Angel-Messiah, pp. x.-25, and 110, and Lillie: Buddha and Buddhism, p. 73.
Some writers have asserted that Crishna is said to have been born on December 25th, but this is not the case. His birthday is held in July-August. (See Williams’ Hinduism, p. 183, and Life and Religion of the Hindoos, p. 134.)
[363:5]Celtic Druids, p. 163. See also, Prog. Relig. Ideas, vol. i. p. 272; Monumental Christianity, p. 167; Bible for Learners, iii. pp. 66, 67.
[363:6]The Heathen Religion, p. 287. See also, Dupuis: p. 246.
[363:7]Relig. of the Anct. Greeks, p. 214. See also, Higgins: Anacalypsis, vol. ii. p. 99.
[364:1]Adytum“—the interior or sacred part of a heathen temple.
[364:2]Bambino“—a term used for representations of the infant Saviour, Christ Jesus, in swaddlings.
[364:3]Bonwick’s Egyptian Belief, p. 157. See also, Dupuis, p. 237.
[364:4]“Deinceps Egyptii Parituram Virginem magno in honore habuerunt; quin soliti sunt puerum effingere jacentem in præsepe, quali POSTEAin Bethlehemeticâ speluncâ natus est.” (Quoted in Anacalypsis, p. 102, of vol. ii.)
[364:5]Quoted by Bonwick, p. 143.
[364:6]Anacalypsis, vol. ii. p. 99.
[364:7]Relig. Anct. Greece, p. 215.
[364:8]Ibid.
[364:9]Anacalypsis, vol. ii. p. 102; Dupuis, p. 237, and Baring Gould: Orig. Relig. Belief, vol. i. p. 322.
[365:1]Anacalypsis, vol. ii. p. 99.
[365:2]The Heathen Religion, p. 287; Dupuis, p. 283.
[365:3]Bulfinch, p. 21.
[365:4]See Bible for Learners, vol. iii. p. 67, and Chambers, art. “Yule.”
[365:5]See Chambers’s, art. “Yule,” and “Celtic Druids,” p. 162.
[365:6]Mallet’s Northern Antiquities, pp. 110 and 355. Knight: p. 87.
[366:1]Dupuis, 160; Celtic Druids, and Monumental Christianity, p. 167.
[366:2]Anacalypsis, vol. ii. p. 99.
[366:3]Hist. Indies, vol. ii. p. 354.
[366:4]See Middleton’s Works, vol. i. p. 80.
[366:5]Knight: Anct. Art and Mytho., p. 82.
[367:1]Gibbon’s Rome, vol. ii. p. 383.
[367:2]King’s Gnostics, p. 49.
[367:3]Quoted in Ibid.
[367:4]See the chapter on “Paganism in Christianity.”
[367:5]Bible for Learners, vol. iii. p. 67.
Extract from CHAPTER XXXIV, Birthday of Jesus Christ, “BIBLE MYTHS AND THEIR PARALLELS IN OTHER RELIGIONS” By T. W. DOANE,  1882. Produced by Marilynda Fraser-Cunliffe, Lisa Reigel, and the Online Distributed Proofreading Team at http://www.pgdp.net  http://www.gutenberg.org/files/31885/31885-h/31885-h.htm#Page_36
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Christianity and Islam can work together for global harmony

https://m.malaysiakini.com/letters/324025

Faith and Reason

Before going into the subject of doctrine in detail we should define certain terms which frequently appear in books on this subject and which are often used by scholars of Islam. These terms are ‘Doubt’, ‘Presumption’ and ‘Knowledge’. After we have examined them we shall begin to look into the meaning of faith.
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Existence of God ,The Creator

“Only fools say in their hearts, “There is no God.” They are corrupt, and their actions are evil; not one of them does good!” (Psalm 14:1 )
Hear, O Israel: The Lord our God is one Lord” (Deuteronomy;6:4; Jesus,Mark;12:29).
“Wherefore thou art great, O LORD God: for there is none like thee, neither is there any God beside thee,” ( 2 Samuel;
7:22 )
“And he (Jesus) said unto him, Why you call me good? there is none good but one, that is, God: but if you want to enter into life, keep the commandments.” (Mathew;
19:17).
Genesis 1:1 – In the beginning God created the heavens and the earth.
Hebrews 11:6 – We must believe that God exists.
Deuteronomy 4:35,39; 6:4 – The God who claims to speak through the Bible is the one and only true God.
Mark 12:29 – “The most important one,” answered Jesus, “is this: ‘Hear, O Israel: The Lord our God, the Lord is one.
1 Corinthians 8:4-6 – So then, about eating food sacrificed to idols: We know that “An idol is nothing at all in the world” and that “There is no God but one.”
James 2:19 – You believe that there is one God. Good! Even the demons believe that–and shudder.
1 Timothy 2:5 – For there is one God and one mediator between God and mankind, the man Christ Jesus.
Also Isaiah 43:10-13; 44:6-8,24; 45:5,6,14,18,21-23; 52:6; Matthew 4:10; 2 Samuel 7:22; 1 Chronicles 17:20; Exodus 20:3-6; 34:14; Deuteronomy 6:13-15; 32:39; Psalm 86:10; Zech 14:9.

“GOD is the Creator of all things, and He is the One, the Almighty” (Qur’an;13:16).
“GOD – there is no deity save Him, the Ever-Living, the Self-Subsistent Fount of All Being. Neither slumber overtakes Him, nor sleep. His is all that is in the heavens and all that is on earth. Who is there that could intercede with Him, unless it be by His leave? He knows all that lies open before men and all that is hidden from them, whereas they cannot attain to aught of His knowledge save that which He wills (them to attain). His eternal power overspreads the heavens and the earth, and their upholding wearies Him not. And He alone is truly exalted, tremendous.”(Qur’an;2:255).
“Say: He is Allah the One and Only; God the Eternal, the Uncaused Cause of All Being ; He begets not, and neither is He begotten; And there is nothing that can be  compared with Him.”(Qur’an;112:1-4).


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CHAPTER-1:

INTRODUCTION

Introduction

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The idea of a Supreme Power who is the First Cause of all things, the Creator and Ruler of heaven and earth has always been part of human nature from the beginning. He was not represented by images and had no temple or priests in His service. He was too exalted for an inadequate human cult. Hence there had been a primitive monotheism before people had started to worship a number of deities. Generally He faded from the consciousness of his people who formed images of many deities, His assistants, thus began the paganism. The name given to this divine Supreme Creator and Sustainer in English is God. The belief of a Supreme deity who created the world and governs it, still remains among the primitive African tribes. The belief on God was followed by His worship in different cultures. The relation of a group of human beings to God or the gods or to whatever they consider sacred or, in some cases, merely supernatural is known as religion. The word ‘religion’ is derived form Latin ‘religio’ means ‘to bind’. Thus the religion is the way of binding the people together through common deity worship and rituals. The religions differ in their set of principles or beliefs or the body of dogmas; the theological virtue as secure belief in God and a trusting acceptance of God’s will. Allah says: “In fact, your religion is one religion, and I am your only Lord: so fear Me Alone. Yet people have divided themselves into factions and each faction rejoices in its own doctrines”(Qur’an;23:52-53).
Rudolf Otto (1869-1937), the German theologian, philosopher, and historian of religion, coined the term ‘numinous’ (supernatural, mystical or spiritual) to designate the nonrational element of religious experience—the awe, fascination, and blissful exultation inspired by the perception of the divine. He believed that religion provided an understanding of the world that was distinct from and beyond that of science. He said; “The most important part  of religion can not be stated through words. This is (apparently) illogical part of religion. Stable part of religion is the ideological part which is very important. But we should not forget that there is more which can not be put in to words’. Each religion has its own set of beliefs generally shared by a community, and they express the communal culture and values through myth, doctrine, and rituals. Worship is probably the most basic element of religion, but moral conduct, right belief, and participation in religious institutions also constitute elements of the religious life. Religions attempt to answer basic questions intrinsic to the human mind like: existence of God, creation of universe and humanity, human sufferings, evil, death and its aftermath etc. The main outwardly focused Abrahamic religions e.g., Judaism (Hebrews), Christianity, and Islam attempt to satisfy human quest through the Revealed knowledge received by the prophets and messengers of God, while inwardly focused religions like Jainism, Buddhism make use of perception of the true nature of reality. While exploring the historic development in theosophical and scientific aspects about ‘The God’ and ‘The Creation’ specifically in the three religions linked to Abraham  (who was neither Jew nor Christian, rather the one who had totally surrendered in obedience to the will of God). This original religion of Abraham was revived in its unique spirit of monotheism, fourteen hundred years ago in concordance with the light of reason; exclusive of mysterious doctrines to cast a shade of sentimental ignorance round the original truths rooted in the human intellect, representing the latest development of the religious faculties. Hence Islam emerges as true legacy of Abraham contrary to the common perception that it was a new religion founded by Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him).

Main Doctrines:

The beliefs supporting the existence of God or against it, including the middle positions have resulted in an array of doctrines, the most prominent among them are; Theism, Monotheism, Theodicy, Deism, Agnosticism and Atheism. Theism, is the view that all observable phenomena are dependent on but distinct from one supreme being. The view usually entails the idea that God is beyond human comprehension, perfect and self-sustained, but also peculiarly involved in the world and its events. Theists seek support for their view in rational argument and appeals to experience. A central issue for theism is reconciling God, usually understood as omnipotent and perfect, with the existence of evil. Monotheism; is the belief in the existence of one God. It is distinguished from polytheism. Monotheism is characteristic of Judaism, Christianity, and Islam, which view God as the creator of the world, who oversees and intervenes in human events, and as a beneficent and holy being, the source of the highest good. Most other religions throughout the history have been polytheistic, believing in numerous gods dominated by a supreme god or by a small group of powerful gods. The monotheism that characterizes Judaism began in ancient Israel with the adoption of Yahweh as the single object of worship and the rejection of the gods of other tribes and nations without, initially, denying their existence. Islam is clear in confessing one, eternal, unbegotten, unequaled God, while Christianity holds that a single God is reflected in the three persons of the Holy Trinity. The Theodicy is an argument for the justification of God, concerned with reconciling God’s goodness and justice with the observable facts of evil and suffering in the world. Most such arguments are a necessary component of theism. Under polytheism, the problem is solved by attributing evil to a conflict of wills between deities. The solution is less simple in monotheism, and it can take several forms. In some approaches, the perfect world created by God was spoiled by human disobedience or sin. In others, God withdrew after creating the world, which then fell into decay.
The Deism; is the belief in God based on reason rather than revelation or the teaching of any specific religion. A form of natural religion, Deism originated in England in the early 17th century as a rejection of orthodox Christianity. Deists asserted that reason could find evidence of God in nature and that God had created the world and then left it to operate under the natural laws he had devised. The philosopher Edward Herbert (1583–1648) developed this view in ‘On Truth’(1624). By the late 18th century Deism was the dominant religious attitude among Europe‘s educated classes; it was accepted by many upper-class Americans of the same era, including the first three U.S. presidents. According to the doctrine of Agnosticism; One cannot know the existence of anything beyond the phenomena of experience. It is popularly equated with religious skepticism, and especially with the rejection of traditional Christian beliefs under the impact of modern scientific thought. T.H. Huxley popularized philosophical agnosticism after coining the term agnostic (as opposed to Gnostic) in 1869, to designate one who repudiated traditional Judeo-Christian theism but was not a doctrinaire atheist. Agnosticism may mean no more than the suspension of judgment on ultimate questions because of insufficient evidence, or it may constitute a rejection of traditional Christian tenets. Finally, the Atheism is the critique and denial of metaphysical beliefs in God or divine beings. Unlike agnosticism, which leaves the question of existence or non existence of God as open; the atheism positively denies the existence of God. It is rooted in an array of philosophical systems. Ancient Greek philosophers such as Democritus and Epicurus argued for it in the context of materialism. In the 18th century David Hume and Immanuel Kant, though not atheists, argued against traditional proofs for God’s existence, making belief a matter of faith alone. Atheists such as Ludwig Feuerbach held that God was a projection of human ideals and that recognizing this fiction made self-realization possible. Marxism exemplified modern materialism. Beginning with Friedrich Nietzsche, existentialist atheism proclaimed the death of God and the human freedom to determine value and meaning. Logical positivism holds that propositions concerning the existence or nonexistence of God are nonsensical or meaningless.


CHAPTER-2:

EXISTENCE OF GOD

The main issue which have remained the center of attention of believers of the God has been; How to prove the existence of God rationally? God is infinite, incomprehensible; His essence is beyond the perception through the human senses and intellect. Infinite can not be comprehended by finite human cognizance. What ever theories about existence of God are evolved, they remain with in the ambit of human intellect for understanding in the parables and allegories which remain far from the reality as “there is none comparable to Him”. God is not a ‘being’ like any creatures or thing known to human. Hence the man has reached the conclusion that the God can be comprehended through ‘His works’ or ‘signs’. The God of Abrahamic faiths is Supreme, Creator and Sustainer who created the universe and all creatures. According to the Hebrew traditions the God of their forefathers had been known mostly as El ‘Elyon (God Most High) or El Shaddai (God of the Mountain or Almighty God), but He identified Himself to Moses as Yahweh (Jehovah) (Exodus;6:3).  As the causative form of the verb “to be,” Yahweh means; ‘He Who Creates’ (Brings Into Being). This revelation enabled Moses to understand the God of the Hebrews as the sovereign Lord over nature and the nations of the world. After the Exile (6th century BC), and especially from the 3rd century BC on, Jews ceased to use the name Yahweh for two reasons. As Judaism became a universal religion through its influence in the Greco-Roman world, the more common noun ‘elohiym,(el-o-heem) is plural of gods in the ordinary sense; but specifically used (in the plural thus, especially with the article) of the supreme God tended to replace Yahweh to demonstrate the universal sovereignty of Israel‘s God over all others. At the same time, the divine name was increasingly regarded as too sacred to be uttered; it was thus replaced vocally in the synagogue ritual by the Hebrew word Adonai (“My Lord”), which was translated as Kyrios (“Lord”) in the Septuagint, the Greek version of the Old Testament. In Arabic the unique name of God is ‘Allah’; which is pure, does not conjure up any mental picture nor can it be played around with unlike the English word ‘God’. Allah can also be called with other beautiful names suitable to His attributes: “He is Allah! There is no deity worthy of worship except Him! To Him belong the most beautiful Names.”(Qur’an;20:8). Islamic traditions mention ninety nine (number not fixed) names of Allah  like;  Ar-Rahman (The Merciful), Al- Hayy  (The Ever Living), Al-Qayum (The Self-Subsistent): The  knowledge about God available with the followers of Abraham (peace be upon him) is not based upon speculation or guess work but what God has Himself revealed about Himself in the Revealed Scriptures (i.e. Torah, Palms, Injeel  and Qur’an). God has kept the allowance for limitation of human perceptions hence His description about Himself should not always be taken literally but  allegorically. For example He Sees and Hears,  it is not to be understood literally, the way human sees through eyes or hears through ears. How God sees or hears, human intellect can not perceive, because He is Unique and there in none like Him.(Qur’an;112:4, Exodus;9:14; Deutronomy;33:26; 2Sameul;7:22; Isaiah;46:5,9). He has not abandoned the world after creation but, remains actively involved in its affairs. He desires the humanity to live according to His Commandments, by their free choice, He  will reward them accordingly on the Day of Judgement. Among the followers of the Revealed religions there had not been doubt about the existence of God because the messengers and prophets of God had made the believers to believe in the God through the power of ‘signs’ and Revelations. However with the passage of time there has been deterioration and the people frail in faith started to raise questions. The theologians made efforts to satisfy them through the interpretation of scriptures and other rational arguments.
The God of Greek philosophers was very different from the God of Revelations. Socrates (469-399 BC) found it easy to combine his own strong belief in God as ruler of the world with the view that, in practice, one could worship God in the way prescribed by “the usage of the city.” God’s existence is shown, he held, not only by the providential order of nature and the universality of the belief in him but also by warnings and revelations given in dreams, signs, and oracles. Plato (427-346 BC) believed in the existence of a divine, unchanging reality beyond the world of the senses, that the soul was a fallen divinity, out of its element, imprisoned in the body but capable of regaining its divine status by the purification of the reasoning powers of the mind. The Supreme Deity of Aristotle or Plotinus was timeless and impassible; He took no notice of mundane events, did not reveal Himself in history, had not created the world and would not judge it at the end of time.
Zoroastrianism influenced the Judaism during Babylonian exile, the Babylonians were Zoroastrians. Zoroastrianism is based on the teachings of Zoroaster, the Iranian prophet. Founded in the 6th century BCE, they rejects polytheism, accepting only one supreme God, Ahura Mazdā who created the universe and maintains the cosmic order, and that the history of the world consists of the battle between two spirits he created—the beneficent Spenta Mainyu and the destructive Angra Mainyu. The Avesta (the sacred book of Zoroastrianism.) identifies Ahura Mazda himself with the beneficent spirit and represents him as bountiful, all-knowing, and the creator of everything good. In late sources (from the 3rd century), Zurvan (“Time”) is the father of the twins Ormazd (Ahura Mazda) and Ahriman (Angra Mainyu), who in orthodox Mazdaism (Zoroastrianism and Parsiism) reign alternately over the world until Ormazd’s ultimate victory. Zoroastrians are often referred as fire worshipers, but they claim not to worship fire but honor it and in so doing honoring their God, Ahura Mazda.
Hinduism denotes the Indian civilization of approximately the last 2,000 years, which evolved from Vedism, the religion of the Indo-European peoples who settled in Indiain the last centuries of the 2nd millennium BC. Hinduism also have monotheistic doctrines buried under the dust of polytheistic, idolatrous, mystic and other practices. The sacred Hindu scriptures, urge: “O friends, do not worship anybody but Him, the Divine One. Praise Him alone.”(Rigveda;8:1:1). The Upanishads, (each of a series of Hindu sacred treatises based on the Vedas) mentions ‘Brahman’, the eternal, infinite, and omnipresent spiritual source of the finite and changing universe.Generally speaking, Vedic gods share many characteristics: several of them (Indra, Varuna, Vishnu) are said to have created the universe, set the Sun in the sky, and propped apart heaven and earth. All of them are bright and shining, and all are susceptible to human praise. Some major gods were clearly personifications of natural phenomena, and for these deities no clearly delineated divine personalities were perceived. The three most frequently invoked gods are Indra, Agni, and Soma. Indra, the foremost god of the Vedic pantheon, is a god of war and rain. Agni (a cognate of the Latin ignis) is the ‘holy fire’, particularly the fire of sacrifice, and Soma is the intoxicating or hallucinogenic drink of the sacrifice, or the plant from which it is pressed; neither is greatly personified. The concept of transmigration of soul and incarnation also exists. Buddhism, is considered non committal on God, historical criticism has proved that the original teachings of Buddha can never be known, because his teachings and doctrines were written down 400 years, after his death. Moreover little attention was paid to its authenticity, genuineness and purity. However prophesies of advent of Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) in Buddhist scriptures points towards some missing links.

Rational Arguments for the Existence of God:

The arguments generally adduced by theologians in proof of the being of God are: Firstly the ‘Priori Argument’, which is the testimony afforded by reason. Secondly, the ‘Posteriori Argument’, by which one proceed logically from the facts of experience to causes. These arguments include (a) The ‘Cosmological’, by which it is proved that there must be a First Cause of all things, for every effect must have a cause. (b) The ‘Teleological’, or the argument from Design seen all around the operations of an intelligent Cause in nature. (c) ‘Ontological Arguments’, that proceeds from the idea of God to the reality of God(d) Morality and Probability Arguments. The  other stream of arguments for God’s existence, recently proposed in contemporary western philosophy are the proofs from ‘Religious Experience’.  The cosmological argument was first introduced by Aristotle (384-322. B.C) and later refined in western Europe by the celebrated Christian theologian, Thomas Aquinas  (1225-1274 CE). The basic first-cause argument states: ‘Every event must have a cause, and each cause must in turn have its own cause, and so forth.  Hence, there must either be an infinite regress of causes or there must be a starting point or first cause. The conclusion thus follows that there must be an initial prime-mover, a mover that could cause motion without any other mover; the God.’ Teleology is the use of ultimate purpose or design as a means of explaining natural phenomena. St. Paul, with many others in the Greco-Roman world, believed that the existence of God is evident from the appearances of nature: “Ever since the creation of the world his invisible nature namely, his eternal power and deity, has been clearly perceived in the things that have been made”(Romans;1:20). The extraordinary design is evident from planets and galaxies at the cosmic level to human cells and atoms at the quantum level.  Therefore this world must have an intelligent supreme creator. Most Muslim philosophers recognized the Qur’anic emphasis on the uniformity and logical order of nature, accepting it as such.
Allah draws the attention of mankind towards His signs: “Verily in the heavens and the earth are Signs for those who believe.”(Qur’an;45:3); “And in the creation of yourselves and the fact that animals are scattered (through the earth) are Signs for those of assured Faith. And in the alternation of Night and Day and the fact that Allah sends down Sustenance from the sky and revives therewith the earth after its death and the change of the winds are Signs for those that are wise.”(Qur’an;45:4-5). It is pertinent to note that according to Qur’an the ‘reason’ properly used must lead man to cognition of God’s existence and, thus of the fact that a definite plan underlines all His creation; reward for pious believers and punishment for rebellious non believers and sinners: “And they (disbelievers) will add: “Had we but listened (to those warnings). Or (at least) used our own reason, we would not (now) be among those who are destined for the blazing flame!” (Qur’an;67:10). Because Allah says: “Not for (idle) sport did We create the heavens and the earth and all that is between!”  (Qur’an;21:16).
Ontological Argument is developed on the basis that;God is a being, than which nothing greater can be conceived to exist in thought. Either a being than which nothing greater can be conceived exists in thought alone and not in reality or a being than which nothing greater can be conceived exists both in thought and in reality. If the greatest conceivable being existed in thought alone we could think of another being existing in both thought and reality. Existing in thought and reality is greater than existing in thought alone. Therefore: A being than which nothing greater can be conceived (God) exists in thought and in reality. Allah says: “For verily it is thy Lord Who is the Master-Creator knowing all things”(Qur’an;15:86), “Allah is Creator of all things, and He is Guardian over all things.”(Qur’an;39:62).The Moral Argument also called the ‘Anthropological Argument’ is based on the moral consciousness and the history of mankind, which exhibits a moral order and purpose which can only be explained on the supposition of the existence of God. Conscience and human history testify that: “Verily there is a reward for the righteous: verily he is a God that judges in the earth.”(Psalms;58:11). “.. Maintaining His creation in justice, there is no God save Him, the Almighty, the Wise.”(Qur’an;3:18), “On that Day, Allah will give them the full reward they deserve, then they will realize that Allah is the One Who manifests the Truth.”(Qur’an;24:25).
Religious experience as proof for existence of God must be understood against the background of a general theory of experience, the reports of the world received through the senses. Experience, as an issue of sensible content, was set in contrast to reason, understood as the domain of logic and mathematics. Specifically religious experience has been variously identified in different ways: (1) The awareness of the holy, which evokes awe and reverence; (2) The feeling of absolute dependence that reveals man’s status as a creature; (3) The sense of being at one with the divine; (4) The perception of an unseen order or of a quality of permanent rightness in the cosmic scheme; (5) The direct perception of God; (6) The encounter with a reality “wholly other”; (7) The sense of a transforming power as a presence. Sometimes, as in the striking case of the Old Testament prophets, the experience of God has been seen as a critical judgment on man and as the disclosure of his separation from the holy. All interpreters are agreed that religious experience involves what is final in value for man and concerns belief in what is ultimate in reality. Religious experience may be distinguished from the aesthetic aspect of experience in that the former involves commitment and devotion to the divine, while the latter is focused on the appreciation and enjoyment of qualities, forms, and patterns in themselves, whether as natural objects or works of art. Generally the mystics, lay their claim of having experienced presence of God each in own way. The Islamic traditions support the prophets having such an experience, which make their faith very strong due to firm vision (ain-ul-yaqeen). The night journey of mair’aj by Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) is a unique experience, Allah says: “Glorified be He Who took His servant (Muhammad) one night from Inviolable Place of Worship (Masjid-al-Haramin Makka) to the Far Distant Place of Worship (Masjid-al-Aqsa in Jerusalem), whose vicinity We have blessed, so that We may show him some of Our signs: surely He is the One Who is the Hearer, the Observer.”(Qur’an;17:1): In the Book of Enoch, (I Enoch), the first treatise (chapters 1-36) also describes Enoch’s celestial journeys, in which divine secrets were revealed to him. Yet another example is when Abraham said: “My Lord! Show me how you give life to the dead.” He replied: “Have you no faith in this?” Abraham humbly submitted: “Yes! But I ask this to reassure my heart.” Allah said: “Take four birds; train them to follow your direction, cut their bodies into pieces and scatter those pieces on hilltops then call them back; Allah will bring them back to life and they will come to you right away. Thus you will know that Allah is All-powerful and Wise.”(Qur’an;2:260).

Other Arguments:

There are certain things which exist in reality where as their opposite do not exist, but they have been just named due to perception. The ‘Light exists, the main sources being sun, moon, fire, electricity etc. Its intensity could be very high, moderate or low. The power of light varies, it is measurable through instruments. There is some thing called as ‘Darkness’: Does the Darkness exist?  If it does, is there less or more darkness, which could be measured. In fact the darkness does not exist; we can not get a source of darkness like the source of Light. If there is no light there is darkness. It is the absence of lightwhich is called ‘darkness’. The ‘darkness’ is just a perception, a name given to the absence of light. Similarly the ‘sound exists, it could be low, medium, and high sound. There are different sources which generating sound, it is measurable, decibel is the unit of its measure. There is some thing called ‘Silence’, it can not be measured, but we call more or less silence. Actually it is the more or less sound which creates more or less silence. We can not have a source of silence, it can not be said that bring so much silence. Silence is just a perception. Analogous is the case of ‘heat’ which exists. There are various sources of heat like, sun, fire, electricity etc. Heat is measurable, through BTU, Kelvin or Celsius units. There could be more, high heat, or less heat. What about ‘Cold’? does it exist? The cold does not exist beyond  -273 Co, after this temperature there will not be more cold. Absence of ‘heat’ is ‘cold’, just a perception. The God exists, a reality also evident from preceding arguments, the non existence of God is just a perception! 
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PHILOSOPHICAL ARGUMENTS FOR EXISTENCE OF GOD
Explained

The main issue which has remained in focus of philosophers is about the ‘Existence of God’ and the related issues i.e. the existence of ‘Evil’, ‘Predestination and Free Will’. In philosophy there are three major, purely rational, arguments for the existence of God that have had a significant influence on the history of philosophy of religion; the Cosmological, Teleological and Ontological arguments. Other arguments put forth for the existence of God are the arguments from morality and probability. The three major arguments presented in modern philosophy may be compared with the arguments for the existence of God presented by ancient and modern Islamic philosophers. The main argument against the existence of God has been the problem of evil. This has posed many problems to the theist, and Islamic philosophy is only beginning to tackle the problem in western terms.  Another stream of arguments for God’s existence, recently proposed in contemporary western philosophy are the proofs from religious experience.  This is a theme also present in Islamic philosophy.

COSMOLOGICAL ARGUMENTS:

The cosmological argument was first introduced by Aristotle (384-322. B.C) and later refined in Western Europe by the celebrated Christian theologian, Thomas Aquinas (1225-1274.CE). The cosmological argument uses as a technique for disclosure such questions as “Why is this thus?” or “Why is there anything at all?” In receiving replies to these questions in causal terms, the cosmological argument builds up an ever-increasing causal spread until a disclosure occurs, whereupon the phrase “first cause” specifies what is disclosed and advocates certain ways of talking.

The Basic First-Cause Argument:

It states: “Every event must have a cause, and each cause must in turn have its own cause, and so forth.  Hence, there must either be an infinite regress of causes or there must be a starting point or first cause.” The conclusion thus follows that there must be an initial prime-mover, a mover that could cause motion without any other mover; the God.

Views of Muslim Philosophers:

Among the Muslim Al-Kindi, and Averroës support it while Al-Ghazzali and Iqbal maybe seen as being in opposition to this sort of an argument. [Sir Muhammad Iqbal (1877-1938); the great modern Muslim philosopher & poet of Ido-Pak subcontinent] A second argument of Thomas Aquinas draws its inspiration from Islamic and Aristotelian sciences.  He argues that only God is indivisible, and everything other than God is in some way composite or multiple. In Kindi’s theory only God’s oneness is necessary whereas that of all others is contingent upon God.  Hence all other beings single or multiple must emanate from the ultimate essential being. In addition this first being must be uncaused, since it is the cause of everything else. The world requires a creator, or rather a generator (mudhith) in Kindi’s scheme, who could generate the world ex nihilo. 
Ghazzali and Dr. Muhammad Iqbal rejects the argument, as per Iqbal; “Logically speaking, then, the movement from the finite to the infinite as embodied in the cosmological (the astrophysical study of the history, structure, and constituent dynamics of the universe.) argument is quite illegitimate; and the argument fails in toto.” For Iqbal the concept of the first uncaused cause is absurd, it is, however, obvious that a finite effect can give only a finite cause, or at most an infinite series of such causes.  To finish the series at a certain point, and to elevate one member of the series to the dignity of an ‘Un-Caused First Cause’, is to set at naught the very law of causation on which the whole argument proceeds. It is for these reasons that modern philosophers almost unanimously reject the cosmological argument as a legitimate proof for the existence of God.  Kant for example also rejects any cosmological proof on the grounds that it is nothing more than an ontological proof in disguise. He argued that any necessary object’s essence must involve existence, hence reason alone can define such a being, and the argument becomes quite similar to the ontological one in form, devoid of any empirical premises.

TELEOLOGICAL ARGUMENTS:

Teleology is the use of ultimate ‘Purpose’ or ‘Design’ as a means of explaining natural phenomena. St. Paul, with many others in the Greco-Roman world, believed that the existence of God is evident from the appearances of nature: “Ever since the creation of the world his invisible nature, namely, his eternal power and deity, has been clearly perceived in the things that have been made”(Romans;1:20). The most popular, because the most accessible, of the theistic arguments is that which identifies evidences of design in nature, inferring from them a ‘Divine Designer’. The argument from design takes a story with acknowledged disclosure possibilities–e.g., the interrelated parts of a clock –and uses this as a catalyst to evoke a disclosure around some ever-broadening purpose patterns of the universe, in relation to which one can speak of God in terms, for example, of eternal purpose.  William Paley (1805 C.E) in his ‘Natural Theology’ presented it with an analogy of a ‘clock’ found in a remote desert which existed not be by pure chance, being complex machine it has to be a product of an intelligent designer. i.e. there must be a clockmaker. In the same way Paley argues that the universe is much more complex and manifestly designed. The extraordinary design is evident from planets and galaxies at the cosmic level to human cells and atoms at the quantum level.   Therefore this world must have an intelligent creator. This form of the argument can be seen as an inference to the best explanation. That is given the remarkable phenomena of the universe, the best possible explanation for this, must be the existence of God. Paley next argues that if one accepts the above reasoning one is then obliged to accept the reasoning he gives for the universe as a whole. The world is intricate and well-designed for the purpose of supporting life it is the product of an ‘Intelligent Designer’. Else the world is the product of random physical processes. Sober later rejects the notion presented by Paley, and argues that the likelihood of an evolutionary hypothesis supersedes the likelihood of a creationist hypothesis (The position that the account of the creation of the universe given at the beginning of the Bible is literally true).

Views of Muslim Philosophers:

Al-Kindi also attempts to make reference to the ‘Teleological Proof’ (dalil al-‘indyah) for the existence of God.  As he argues that “the orderly and wonderful phenomena of nature could not be purposeless and accidental”. It is also supported by Iqbal.  The two cases, the ‘clock’ and the ‘universe’, are however, different. Unlike the case of the clock, where its builder put the complex machine together given pre-existing material, the universe and its material itself created by God also. That is, there is no point in finding it extra-ordinary that God would be able to organize pre-existing “intractable” (difficult to mold or manipulate) material in such an elegant fashion. The only reason we would have of thinking so, would be if it was a difficult task to design the universe. But then why would God, first create a difficult task for Himself and then go on resolve the difficulty by arranging into a sophisticated pattern? In addition, God would be limited in what He could create by this pre-existing material. This, to Iqbal, does not seem consistent with the Islamic concept of an omnipotent God. Iqbal writes, perhaps in response to Paley, “There is really no analogy between the work of the human artificer and the phenomena of Nature.” Both Iqbal and Russell point out that it is inappropriate for a person who believes in God to put forth an argument for His existence on teleological grounds. The British philosopher David Hume rejected the teleological argument, for different reasons. For him the argument from the best explanation is an inductive argument (Marked by or involving inference), and Hume had argued that inductive knowledge and causation is not possible.
Most Muslim philosophers have attempted to get around this vexatious (persistently disturbing or worrisome) problem by simply recognizing the Qur’anic emphasis on the uniformity of nature, accepting it as such and thus avoiding this problem. The Qur’an says: “Not for (idle) sport did We create the heavens and the earth and all that is between!”  (Qur’an;21:16). The Qur’an says: “Verily in the heavens and the earth are Signs for those who believe. (Qur’an;45:3). “And in the creation of yourselves and the fact that animals are scattered (through the earth) are Signs for those of assured Faith. And in the alternation of Night and Day and the fact that Allah sends down Sustenance from the sky and revives therewith the earth after its death and the change of the winds are Signs for those that are wise. (Qur’an;45:4-5).  The above problem of induction gave rise to modern skepticism (feeling of uncertainty about a situation : misgivings, doubtfulness,) and remains a fascinating unsolved puzzle. 

Immanuel Kant: (1724-1804 C.E):

He was the German idealist (an imaginative or idealistic but impractical person), philosopher. He was, one of the foremost thinkers of the Enlightenment. He argued that reason is the means by which the phenomena of experience are translated into understanding raises a powerful objection to any theory that claims to grasp knowledge of God. He claims that in terms of knowledge there can be no jump from the physical to the metaphysical. Kant distinguishes between ‘noumenal’ and ‘phenomenal’ objects. An object that can be intuited only by the intellect and not perceived by the senses. The noumenonal are objects that lie beyond all possible experience, and the phenomena are the ones we directly experience. Hence, for him the metaphysical is the noumenonal realm. He argues that there can be no possible relation between two realms that have no connection between them. He questions that how can we prove that a certain noumenonal object exists from phenomenal premises?.

Iqbal:

Iqbal responds to Kant’s criticism of metaphysical existence from empirical (experimental, pragmatic) experience: “Kant’s verdict can be accepted only if we start with the assumption that all experience other than the normal level of experience is impossible. The only question, therefore, is whether the normal level is the only level of knowledge-yielding experience?” He argues that there are other levels of experience that can bear knowledge as well.   It is pertinent to note that according to Qur’an the ‘reason’ properly used must lead man to cognition of God’s existence and, thus of the fact that a definite plan underlines all His creation; reward for pious believers and punishment for rebellious non believers and sinners: “And they (disbelievers) will add: “Had we but listened (to those warnings). Or (at least) used our own reason, we would not (now) be among those who are destined for the blazing flame!”(Qur’an; 67:10).

ONTOLOGICAL ARGUMENTS:

Anselm’s Argument:

The modern form of the ontological argument in modern western philosophy was made famous by St.Anselm (1033-1109 C.E) and Descartes (1596-1650). The argument rests on the premise that existence is a predicate that a being could have or lack. Anselm’s argument can be summarized as: “God is a being than which nothing greater can be conceived, a being than which nothing greater can be conceived to exist in our thought. Either a being than which nothing greater can be conceived exists in thought alone and not in reality or a being than which nothing greater can be conceived exists both in thought and in reality. If the greatest conceivable being existed in thought alone we could think of another being existing in both thought and reality. Existing in thought and reality is greater than existing in thought alone. Therefore: A being than which nothing greater can be conceived (God) exists in thought and in reality.”  Simply by pure reason, without any reference to the world, Anselm argues for God. A key feature of these kinds of arguments is that they try to show not only that God exists, but that he necessarily exists. That is, He cannot, not exist. The existence of God is an essential feature of its being just like the angles of a triangle always add up to 180 degrees. It would be impossible to think of God without it existing. Descartes [French mathematician, scientist, and philosopher, considered as the father of modern philosophy] writes: “From the fact that I cannot think of a mountain without a valley, it does not follow that a mountain and a valley exist anywhere, but simply that a mountain and a valley, whether they exist or not are mutually inseparable. But from the fact that I cannot think of God except as existing, it follows that existence is inseparable from God. Hence, the very essence of God, to even make the concept of God intelligible it must exist”. 
Criticism:
This argument has been widely criticized. Kant criticized the argument from two perspectives.   First he points out that, although, the concept that all three sides of the triangle add up to 180 is an analytical concept, there is still nothing that shows that it must exist. Similarly the idea that existence analytically belongs to the concept of God is an illegitimate inference. He writes: “To posit a triangle, and yet to reject its three angles, is self-contradictory; but there is no self-contradiction in rejecting the triangle together with its three angles. The same holds true of the concept of an absolutely necessary being”. Secondly, he rejects Descartes argument on the grounds that existence is not a predicate that can be added or taken away from a concept. That is; existence is not like any of the other properties that are associated with ‘things.’ To say that something exists, is simply to say that the concept is instantiated in the world. He claims this on the basis of his distinction between analytic and synthetic statements. An analytic statement is one of the kinds, “all bachelors are unmarried males,” or “the sum of the angles of a triangle is 180.” In these statements the predicates, “unmarried males” or “sum of angles is 180” does not add any new information to the concept of “bachelors” or “triangle.” Analytic statements are true by virtue of their meaning alone.

Synthetic Statement:

A synthetic statement is something that adds more information about the object in question. For example, “all ravens are black,” is synthetic.  The predicate “are black” tells us more information about the subject “ravens.”    Kant’s claim is that statements of the sort, “X exists” are analytic. It does not add anything additional to the concept. Hence the inference that existing in reality is greater than existence in thought alone is false. The reduction of absurdum from pure thought to God, of Anselm (1033-1109 C.E) and Descartes (1596-1650 C.E) thus fails according to Kant. The closest form of parallel thought to this can be found in the thought of Avicenna [Ibn Sīnā ;980-1037 C.E, philosopher and scientist] who proposed a somewhat similar ontological argument for the existence of God. Avicenna also propounded that God is a necessary being; however, his argument unlike Descartes is not a purely rational one. Avicenna believed that we possess a direct intuitive apprehension of the reality and existence of this necessary being. He believed that it would be impossible to think concretely without the existence of such a being. Averroës [Ibn Rushd-1126-1198 C.E; trained in law, medicine, and philosophy, rose to be chief judge of Córdoba. His series of commentaries on most of the works of Aristotle, written between 1169 and 1195, exerted considerable influence on both Jewish and Christian scholars in later centuries], however, insists that there can be no rational proof for God’s existence and it can only be grasped via the medium of intuition.

Thoughts of Muslim Philosophers on ‘GOD’:

The God that Avicenna argues for is a Necessary Being. A being that necessarily exists, and everything else besides it is contingent and depends upon it for its existence. God has no other essence besides his existence.  His essence (Mahiyah: Quidditas), just is His existence.  Since, God is the only being in which the essence and existence are to be found together, the essence of all other beings precedes their existence. Thus He is absolutely simple, and no has no further attributes. In his book ‘al-Shifa’ Avicenna explains that since the ‘Necessary Being’ has no genus or differentia it is both indefinable and indemonstrable. As such “neither its being or its actions can be an object of ‘Discursive Thought’ (proceeding to a conclusion through reason rather than intuition.), since it is without cause, quality, position or time.” All other entities do not exist necessarily or essentially, rather they are merely contingent beings (per accidents).  
The characteristics of God offered by Avicenna drew major criticisms from the contemporary Muslim orthodoxy, who found his definition incompatible with Islamic doctrine. “..If there be (but) the weight of a mustard-seed and it were (hidden) in a rock or (anywhere) in the heavens or on earth Allah will bring it forth: for Allah understands the finest mysteries (and) is well-acquainted (with them).”(Qur’an;31:16).How can God be omniscient if He has no attributes? He does try to explain, however, how his description would be compatible with God having knowledge of the world. In knowing Himself, God is capable of knowing everything that emanated from Him.  Since God does not have sense-perceptual knowledge He cannot know the particulars, but rather only the essences or universal principles. But according to Avicenna this does not exclude him knowing the specifics of any given event. Knowing all the antecedents and consequences in the causal chain, allows God to place the event temporally and differentiate it from all other events. Hence, his theory does not preclude God’s knowledge of the specifics. Al-Ghazzali (1058-1111C.E) was not satisfied with this account and criticized Avicenna stating that the theory being presented would not allow for change in divine knowledge with the introduction of the time factor.  

Criticism of ‘Perpetual Universe’:

Another important characteristic of Avicenna’s ontology was the fact that he believed that the universe is eternal. This was another belief, which was not acceptable to the Islamic orthodoxy. He thought the creative ability of God was linked to His intellectual nature and thus flowed eternally of rational necessity from Him. Although the universe exists as an independent body, its existence is still contingent upon God. God and the world are different, but the existence of the world depends upon God. This can be seen as refinement, or rather ‘Islamisation’ of the Aristotelian views that God and the universe were two distinct beings which did not interact with each other. What is, in different ways, implied by these arguments is that the word God is unique in its logic, that it works in discourse as no other word exactly works. Thus, one cannot say “God exists” but rather “God necessarily exists.”This is sometimes expressed by remarking that the existence of God is not the existence of a physical object or even the existence of a person, though what can be said about persons is less misleading in speaking about God than in speaking about the logic of things. This point is sometimes made, albeit misleadingly by saying that God does not exist, but this is only a picturesque way of saying that he does not exist in the way that a table exists.

Verifiable Evidence:

The Verifiable Evidence is the blend of all the three i.e. Cosmological, Teleological and Ontological Arguments.

Proof of Existence of God through Scientific Facts in Qur’an:

Islam encourages reasoning, discussions and dialogues. The Qur’an contains more than 6000 verses (ayaats-‘Signs’) out of which more than thousand refer to various subjects of science, such as Astronomy, Physics, Geography, Geology, Oceanology, Biology, Botany, Zoology, Medicine, Physiology, Embryology as well as General Science, mostly un known to humanity fourteen centuries ago. It may be kept in view that Qur’an is not a book of ‘science’, but a book of ‘signs’ i.e. a book of Ayaats. It is found that the Qur’anic information on science does not conflict with the established scientific facts. It may go against certain scientific hypothesis or theories, which are not grounded in facts as many a times, the science retract its position.
Many facts mentioned in the Qur’an have been discovered in the last few centuries. But science has not advanced to a level where it can confirm every statement of the Qur’an concerning science. According to Dr.Zakir Naik; suppose 80% of all that is mentioned in the Qur’an has been proved 100% correct, while for the remaining 20%, science makes no categorical statement, since it has not advanced to a level, where it can either prove or disprove these statements. With the limited knowledge through science available today one cannot say for sure whether even a single percentage or a single verse of the Qur’an from this 20% portion is wrong. Thus when 80% of the Qur’an is 100% correct and the remaining 20% is not disproved, logic says that even the 20% portion is correct.  The details of scientific facts mentioned in Qur’an are available in the book ‘Qur’an and Science’ by Dr.Zakir Naik & “The Bible, The Qur’an and Science” by Dr. Maurice Bucaille, details follows.


CHAPTER-3:

MONOTHEISM (TAWHID) AND POLYTHEISM
The great Messenger of God, Abraham (peace be upon him), the patriarch of Jews, Christians and Muslims, through his vision, reasoning and Mercy of God, arrived at the truth of the existence of One God. It is narrated in Qur’an, God says: “We showed Abraham the kingdom of the heavens and the earth, as We show you with examples from nature, so he became one of the firm believers. (while pondering) When the night drew its shadow over him, he saw a star and said, “this is my Lord !” But when it set, he said: “I do not love to worship such a god that fades away.” Afterwards he saw the moon shining, he said; “This is my Lord !” But when it also set, he cried: “If my Lord does not guide me, I shall certainly become one of those who go astray.” Then when he saw the sun with its brighter shine, and he said: “This must be my Lord! it is larger than the other two.” But when it also set, he exclaimed: “O my people! I am done with your practice of associating partners with God. As far as I am concerned, I will turn my face, being upright, to Him Who has created the heavens and the earth, and I am not one of the idolaters.”(Qur’an;6:75-78).
Islam is based on the strict adherence to monotheism (The doctrine or belief that there is only one God) called Tawhid, which was preached by Abraham (peace be upon him); Allah, the One and Only God, the Creator, Cherisher and Sustainer of all the Worlds: “And He is Allah: there is no god but He. To him be praise at the first and at the last: for Him is the Command and to Him shall ye (all) be brought back.”(Qur’an;28:70);“Thus said the LORD the King of Israel, and his redeemer the LORD of hosts; I am the first, and I am the last; and beside me there is no God.”(Isaiah;44:6);  “No just estimate have they made of Allah: for Allah is He Who is strong and able to carry out His Will” (Qur’an;22:74). Abraham said: “For me I, have set my face firmly and truly toward Him Who created the heavens and the earth, and never shall I give partners to Allah.”(Qur’an;6:79). Moses (peace be upon him) said: “Shama Israelu Adonai Ila Hayno Adna Ikhad ”[“Hear, O Israel: The Lord our God is one Lord”] (Deuteronomy;6:4). Jesus (peace be upon him) also believed in One God, when he said: “Shama Israelu Adonai Ila Hayno Adna Ikhad ”[“Hear, O Israel: The Lord our God is one Lord”](Mark;12:29) and Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) was commanded: “Your God is one God; there is no one worthy of worship except Him, the Compassionate, the Merciful.(Qur’an;2:163).
Tawhid, the basis of Islam, needs deep understanding. Tawhid relates to the oneness of God, in the sense that He is one and there is no god but He, as stated in the “witness” creed (shahadah): “There is no one worthy of worship except Allah (God) and Muhammad (peace be upon him) is His messenger”. Tawhid further refers to the nature of God, that He is a unity, not composed, not made up of parts, but simple and uncompounded: “Say, He is the One God” (Qura’n;112:1). The doctrine of the unity of God and the issues that it raises, such as the question of the relation between the essence and the attributes of God, reappear throughout most of Islamic history. Tawhid  can not be visualized in a pantheistic sense: (Pantheism; a doctrine identifying the Deity with the universe and its phenomena) that it is wrong to say that; “all essences are divine, and there is no absolute existence besides that of God”. To majority Muslims, the science of Tawhid is the systematic theology through which a better knowledge of God may be reached.

Monotheism in Bible:

The existence of God is taken for granted in the Bible. There is nowhere any argument to prove it. The miracles and signs by the messengers and prophets were enough to satisfy the followers. However even then immediately after coming out of Egypt under miraculous circumstances, the Israelites indulged in the worship of calf.  He who disbelieves the truth of God, is spoken of as one devoid of understanding: “The fool hath said in his heart, There is no God. They are corrupt, they have done abominable works, there is none that doeth good.”(Psalms;14:1). The First Commandment declared in the Old Testament as well as New Testament states the Oneness of God (Deuteronomy;6:4, Mark;12:29);He is the Rock, his work is perfect: for all his ways are judgment: a God of truth and without iniquity, just and right is he.”(Deuteronomy;32:4). The infinite nature of God is indicated explicitly: “Then Moses said to God, “If I come to the people of Israel and say to them, ‘The God of your fathers has sent me to you,’ and they ask me, ‘What is his name?’ what shall I say to them? God said to Moses, “I AM WHO I AM.” (Ehyeh asher ehyeh)…”(Exodus;3:13-14). So when Moses asks who he is, God replies in effect: ‘Never you  mind who I am!’ Or ‘Mind your own business!’ There was to be no discussion on God’s nature and certainly no attempt to manipulate him as pagans sometimes did when they recited the names of their gods. Yahweh is the Unconditioned One: I shall be that which I shall be. He will be exactly as he chooses and will make no guarantees.
God’s attributes are spoken of by some as ‘Absolute’, i.e., such as belong to his essence as Jehovah, Jah, etc.; and Relative, i.e., such as are ascribed to him with relation to his creatures. Others distinguish them into ‘Communicable’, i.e. those which can be imparted in degree to his creatures: goodness, holiness, wisdom, etc; and ‘Incommunicable’, which cannot be so imparted: independence, immutability, immensity, and eternity. They are by some also divided into ‘Natural Attributes’, eternity, immensity, etc.; and Moral, holiness, goodness, etc. The attributes of God are set forth in order by Moses: “And the LORD passed by before him, and proclaimed, The LORD, The LORD God, merciful and gracious, longsuffering, and abundant in goodness and truth, Keeping mercy for thousands, forgiving iniquity and transgression and sin, and that will by no means clear the guilty; visiting the iniquity of the fathers upon the children, and upon the children’s children, unto the third and to the fourth generation.”(Exodus;34:6-7).
In the Bible, God is declared to be; Eternal (Deutronomy;33:27; Psalms;90:2), Immortal (1Timothy;1:17;6:16), Light (Isaiah;60:19; James; 1:17, 1John;1:5), Invisible (Job;23:8-9) Un-searchable (Job;11:7; 37:23;Psalms; 145:3; Isaiah; 40:28; Romans; 11:33), Incorruptible (Romans;1:23), Absolute sovereign (Daniel;4:25,35), Mighty (Job;36:5),Omnipotent (Geneses17:1; Exodus;6:3), Omniscient (Psalms;139:1-6; Proverbs;5:21), Omnipresent (Psalms;139:7; Jeremiah;23:23), Immutable (Psalms;102:26-27), Glorious. (Exodus;15:11; Psalms;145:5), Most High (Psalms;83:18; Acts;7:48), Perfect (Mathew; 5:48, Job;36:4; 37:16), Holy (Psalms;99:9; Isaiah;5:16), Just (Deutronomy;32:4; Isaiah;45:21), True (Jermiah;10:10), Upright (Psalms;25:8; 92:15), Righteous (Ezra;9:15; Psalms;145:17), Good (Psalms;25:8; 119:68), His being alone good.(Mathew;19:17), Incomparable (Isaiah;44:7; Jeremiah;10:7), Great(Psalms;86:10), Gracious (Exodus;34:6, Psalms;116:5), Merciful (Exodus;34:6-7), Long-suffering (Numbers;14:18; Micah;7:1), Jealous (Joshua;24:19; Nahum;1:2), Compassionate (2Kiings;13:23), None beside Him (Deutronomy;4:35; Isaiah; 44:6), None before Him (Isaiah;43:10), None like to Him (Exodus;9:14; Deutronomy;33:26; 2Samuel;7:22; Isaiah;46:5,9), Fills heaven and earth (1Kings;8:27; Jeremiah;23:24). Should be worshipped in spirit and in truth. (John;4:24), A consuming fire (Hebrews;12:29). His being alone possessed of foreknowledge (Isaiah;46:9-11). His being the sole object of worship in heaven and earth.(Nehemia;9:6; Mathew;4:10).His being the only Saviour. (Isaiah;45:21-22). His being the only source of pardon.(Micah;7:18; Mark;2:7),Universal (Job;28:24; Daniel;2:22; Act;15:18), Infinite (Psalms;147:5; Romans;11:33), Wonderful, Beyond human comprehension (Psalms;139:6), and Underived. (Job;21:22; Isaiah;40:14). The idol worship is condemned in the Old Testament” (Exodus;20:3-5, Deuteronomy;5:7-9). According to Bible Adam was created in the image of God (Geneses;1;26-27,5:1), but an other place it is mentioned: “I am God, and there is none like me.”(Isaiah;46:9). Some theologians have interpreted ‘image’ as ‘vicegerent’. Allah says: “We have indeed created man in the best stature;”(Qura’n;95:4). Islam reject to draw any semblance between the attributes of Allah and His creatures; because; “there is none like unto Him.”(Qura’n;112:4).
However Bible narrates certain attributes, of God like His creatures, which are not befitting to the elegance, grace and greatness of The Supreme Creator and Sustainer. They appear to contradict the attributes of God mentioned elsewhere in Bible. Some examples are: And they heard the voice of Jehovah God walking in the garden in the cool of the day: and the man and his wife hid themselves from the presence of Jehovah God amongst the trees of the garden.”(Genesis;3:8), “And Jehovah God called unto the man, and said unto him, Where art thou?(Genesis;3:9). God showing repentance:” And it repented Jehovah that he had made man on the earth, and it grieved him at his heart”(Genesis;6:6), “Thou hast rejected me, said Jehovah, thou art gone backward: therefore have I stretched out my hand against thee, and destroyed thee; I am weary with repenting.”(Jeremiah;15:6). God shaving like a “barber”: In that day will the Lord shave with a razorthat is hired in the parts beyond the River, even with the king of Assyria, the head and the hair of the feet; and it shall also consume the beard.”(Isaiah;7:20) God showing his back parts to Moses: “And I (God) will take away my hand and thou shalt see my back parts”(Exodus;33:23). God “riding” a cherub: And he rode upon a cherub, and did fly; Yea, he was seen upon the wings of the wind.”(2 Samuel;22:11). There are some other contradictory attributes of God, at some places God saying that no one can see Him: “No man hath seen God at any time”(John;1:18), “(God) whom no man hath seen, nor can see”(I Timothy;6:16), “And he (God) said, Thou canst see my face: for there shall no man see me, and live”(Exodus;33:20). It is contradicted at other verses: “And they (Moses, Aaron and seventy others) saw the God of Israel”(Exodus;24:10), “And the Lord spoke unto Moses face to face, as a man speaks unto his friend”(Exodus;33:11). A very strange incidence is narrated, that Jacob wrestled with God and prevailed: “And Jacob was left alone; and there wrestled a man with him until the breaking of the day. And when he saw that he prevailed not against him, he touched the hollow of his thigh; and the hollow of Jacob’s thigh was strained, as he wrestled with him. And he said, Let me go, for the day breaketh. And he said, I will not let thee go, except thou bless me. And he said unto him, What is thy name? And he said, Jacob. And he said, Thy name shall be called no more Jacob, but Israel: for thou hast striven with God and with men, and hast prevailed. And Jacob asked him, and said, Tell me, I pray thee, thy name. And he said, Wherefore is it that thou dost ask after my name? And he blessed him there. And Jacob called the name of the place Peniel: for, said he, I have seen God face to face, and my life is preserved”(Geneses;32:24-30).

Trinitarianism:

The complex doctrine of Trinitarianism” called as ‘Trinitarian Monotheism” was the deviation introduced by Paul against the monotheistic teachings of Old Testament and Prophet Jesus (peace be upon him). According to this docrine; God is considered to consist of three persons, The Father (God), the Son (Jesus), and the Holy Spirit,all three as One. Trinity is totally opposed to monotheisim preached by Abraham (peace be upon him), which Jews, Christians and Muslims claim to follw.The use of the terminology ‘son of God’ and Father (for God) need to be understood as per its use among Hebrews and the Biblical text. The Hebrews believed that God is One, and had neither wife nor children in any literal sense, hence it is obvious that the expression “son of God” merely meant to them “Servant of God”; the one who, because of his faithful service, was close and dear to God, as a son is to a father. Christians who came from a Greek and Roman background, later misused this term. In the Greek-Roman heritage, “son of God” signified an incarnation of a god or someone born of a physical union between male and female gods. When the Church cast aside its Hebrew foundations, it adopted the pagan concept of “son of God”, which was entirely different from the Hebrew usage, just to make the new faith familiar and acceptable to new gentile converts of pagan origin. Consequently, the use of the term “son of God” should only be understood from the Semitic symbolic sense of a “servant of God”, and not in the pagan sense of a literal offspring of God. In the Gospel, Jesus is recorded as saying: “Blessed are the peace-makers; they will be called sons of God.”(Mathew;5:9). Son of God has been used numerously in the Old & New Testaments in similar sense. (Hosea;1:10,Jeremiah;31:9,Job;2:1,38:4-7,Genesis; 6:2,Deuteronomy; 14:1, Exodus;4:22-23, 2Samuel;8:13-14, Psalms;2:7, Book of Job;1:6, Luke; 3:38, 9:22 & 4:41). Likewise use of the term ‘abba’, “dear father” by Jesus’ when he said: “For ye have not received the spirit of bondage again to fear; but ye have received the Spirit of adoption, whereby we cry, Abba, Father”. (Romans; 8:15), should be understood similarly, because the word ‘Father’ is used for the ‘God’  or the ‘Lord’ not as biological father but in the spiritual sense as The Creator & Sustainer: “For all who are led by the Spirit of God, are the sons of God.” (Romans;8:14). “He shall cry unto me, Thou art my father, my God, and the rock of my salvation”(Psalms;89:26), “Be ye therefore perfect, even as your Father which is in heaven is perfect.” (Mathew;5:48), similarly God is mentioned as Father at many other places (Mathew;5:16,45,48, 6:1,6,8,9,32, 7:11,21, 10:32,33, 12:50, John; 5:30, 5:37, 14:16, 20:17, 2Samuel; 7:14,  Psalms;89:26). Moreover word ‘Father’ has also been used as a token of reverence or messenger or  domination: Joseph (peace be upon him) is called a father to Pharaoh (Genesis; 45:8), Abraham (peace be upon him) is called the father of a multitude of nations (Genesis;17:5), and Job is called the father of the needy (Job;29:16). Again by theologians alluding to Psalms 110; Jesus is  called Priest or a Father of the priesthood, forever. The only person who has blasphemously been given attributes like God is Melchisedec: “For this Melchisedec, king of Salem, priest of the most high God, who met Abraham returning from the slaughter of the kings, and blessed him; To whom also Abraham gave a tenth part of all; first being by interpretation King of righteousness, and after that also King of Salem, which is, King of peace; Without father, without mother, without descent, having neither beginning of days, nor end of life; but made like unto the Son of God; abideth a priest continually.  Now consider how great this man was, unto whom even the patriarch Abraham gave the tenth of the spoils.” (Hebrews;7:1-4). In the literal sense here Melchisedec, appears to be higher than Jesus! 
The early Chrisitans rejected the new doctrine of Trinity.According to doctrine of Christianity, God literally became incarnate as a human in the form of son i.e. Jesus Christ. This “Trinitarian Monotheism” has been rejected by several Christian denominations and Christian-based religions. Arianism, was founded by the Alexandrian presbyter Arius (4th century), according to his doctrine, God alone is immutable and self-existent, and the Son is not God but a creature with a beginning. The Council of Nicaea (325 C.E) condemned Arius and declared the Son to be “of one substance with the father.” Arianism had numerous defenders for the next 50 years but eventually collapsed when the Christian emperors of Rome Gratian and Theodosius assumed power. The First Council of Constantinople (381 C.E) approved the Nicene Creed and proscribed Arianism. However it continued among the Germanic tribes through the 7th century, and similar beliefs are held in the present day by the Jehovah’s Witnesses and by some adherents of Unitarianism. The Strict Unitarian Christians believe that God, the Father, to be unipersonal, the only divine being, salvation to be granted to the entire human race, and that the Reason and Conscience to be the criteria for belief and practice while some others believe that Jesus is a created deity. Jehovah’s Witnesses, for example, do not religiously worship the Logos (Jesus), but they believe that the Father created the worlds by means of the Logos.
It is striking that the basic teachings of the Church such as Trinity and Vicarious Atonement find no mention in the Bible. There is not a single unambiguous statement in the entire Bible where Prophet Jesus (peace be upon him) himself says, “I am God” or where he says, “worship me” rather he said: “..There is none good but one, that is, God..”(Mathew;19:17). The only single verse in the whole of Bible which, the supporters of Trinity interpreted to supports this Christian dogma that: “For there are three that bear record in heaven, the Father, the Word, and the Holy Ghost; and these three are one.”(The first Epistle of John; 5:7,8). In some volumes this  verse is written as : “There are three witnesses, the Spirit, the water, and the blood; and these three agree”. In the foot note of this verse in ‘New International Version Bible’ it is written; ‘not found in any Greek manuscript before the sixteen century’. Dr C.I, Scofield, D.D. backed by eight other D.D.’s in a footnote to this verse opine: “It is generally agreed that this verse has no manuscript authority and has been inserted. “The fundamentalist Christians still retain this fabrication whereas, in all the modern translations including the Revised Standard Version (RSV) this pious deceit has been unceremoniously expunged.  On the contrary Jesus (peace be upon him) also said: “Shama Israelu Adonai Ila Hayno Adna Ikhad ”[“Hear, O Israel: The Lord our God is one Lord”](Mark;12:29). In fact, various verses of the Bible point to the actual mission of Jesus (peace be upon him), which was to fulfill the Commandments and the Law revealed to Prophet Moses (peace be upon him) (Mathew; 5:17,18,19). Indeed Prophet Jesus (peace be upon him) rejected any suggestions that attributed divinity to him, and explained his miracles as the power of the One True God. Prophet Jesus (peace be upon him) thus reiterated the message of monotheism that was given by all earlier prophets of God.
Islam toltallly despise the Trinity, for it is mentioned in Qur’an:“They do blaspheme who say: Allah is one of three in a Trinity: for there is no god except One Allah.  If they desist not from their word (of blasphemy) verily a grievous penalty will befall the blasphemers among them.”(Qur’an;5:73); “O people of the Book! Do not overstep the bounds [of truth] in your religious beliefs, and do not say of God anything but the truth. The Christ Jesus, son of Mary, was but God’s Messenger – [the fulfillment of] His promise  which He had conveyed (kalimah, “word”) unto Mary – and a soul created by Him. Believe, then, in God and His Messengers, and do not say, “[God is] a trinity”. Desist [from this assertion] for your own good. God is but One God; utterly remote is He, in His glory, from having a son: unto Him belongs all that is in the heavens and all that is on earth; and none is as worthy of trust as God.”(Qur’an;4:171).  M. Asad logically explains this verse: “His word which He conveyed unto Mary and a soul from Him”. According to Tabari, the “word” (kalimah) was “the announcement (risalah) which God bade the angels to convey to Mary, and God’s glad tiding to her” (Qur’an;3:45) – which justifies the rendering of kalimatuhu as “[the fulfillment of] His promise”.  As regards the expression, “a soul from Him” or “created by Him”, it is to be noted that among the various meanings which the word ruh bears in the Qur’an (e.g., “inspiration” in Qur’an;2:87, 253), it is also used in its primary significance of “breath of life”, “soul”, or “spirit”: thus, for instance, in Qur’an;32:9, where the ever-recurring evolution of the human embryo is spoken of: “and then He forms him [i.e., man] and breathes into him of His spirit” – that is, endows him with a conscious soul which represents God’s supreme gift to man and is, therefore, described as “a breath of His spirit”. The verse (Qur’an;4:171) stresses the purely human nature of Jesus and refutes the belief in his divinity, the Qur’an points out that Jesus, like all other human beings, was “a soul created by Him”.

Polytheism:

Opposite to Tawhid is Shirk (associating partners or other deities with God: Polytheism). Shirk is considered synonymous with any belief or practice rejected by Islam. The Qur’an stresses in many verses that God does not share his powers with any partner (sharik): Say: “My Lord has forbidden only indecencies whether , such of them as are apparent and such as are within, and sin and wrongful oppression, and that you associate with Allah (shirk) for which He has granted no sanction, and saying things about Allah of which you have no knowledge.”(Qur’an;7:33); “Never has Allah begotten a son, nor is there any god besides Him. Had it been so, each god would govern his own creation, and each would have tried to overpower the others. Exalted be Allah, above the sort of things they attribute to Him!”(Qur’an;23:91). The shirk is distinguished, by different grades apart from pure and blatant polytheism. The shirk al-‘adah (“shirk of custom”), which includes all superstitions, such as the belief in omens and the seeking of help from soothsayers. Shirk al-ibadah(“shirk of worship”) is manifested in the belief in the powers of created things, the reverencing of saints (an act showing respect by bowing, only reserved for Allah), kissing holy stones (except black stone at Ka’ba), and  asking to grant favours from dead or alive people (grant of favours is only by Allah), “shirk of knowledge”  (shirk al-‘ilm) isto credit anyone, such as astrologers and palmists etc with the knowledge of the future. All of these types of shirk are shirk saghir (“minor shirk”) in comparison with polytheism. The Muslims totally reject all types of Shirk and Kufir (Disbelief), they firmly believe in Tawhid, ONE GOD, Supreme and Eternal, Infinite and Mighty, Merciful and Compassionate, Creator and Provider. God has neither father nor mother, no sons nor was He fathered. None is equal to Him. Allah is the God of Adam, Noah, Abraham, Moses, Jesus and all mankind; He is not the God of a special tribe or race. He is the Creator and Sustainer of humanity and all other creatures. He is the God for the Christians, the Jews, the Muslims, the Buddhists, the Hindus, the atheists, and all others. He extends His favours in this world to all, believers or non-believers, as a test, which is part of His wisdom and plan.

God created humanity and formed nations and tribes, He says: “O mankind! We created you from male and female, and made you into nations and tribes that you might get to know one another.(Qur’an;49:13). He provided guidance through His messengers: “No doubt We raised in every nation a Messenger, saying: “Serve Allah and keep away from false gods and idols.” After that, Allah guided some of them while deviation proved true against the others. So travel through the earth and see what was the end of those who denied Our Message.” (Qur’an;16:36). Hence in the major religions the traces of monotheism (Tawhid) are still found in the scripture even if not practiced. Hinduism is commonly perceived as a polytheistic religion because the common Hindus are observed worshiping many gods. However Hindus, well versed in their scriptures, insist that a Hindu should believe in and worship only one God. The sacred Hindu scriptures, urge monotheism (Tawhid), it is stated: “Those whose intelligence has been stolen by material desires surrender unto demigods and follow the particular rules and regulations of worship according to their own natures.”(Bhagavad Gita;7:20); “He is One only without a second.” (Chandogya: Upanishad;6:2:1), “Of Him there are neither parents nor lord.”(Svetasvatara: Upanishad;6:9), “There is no likeness of Him.”(Svetasvatara: Upanishad; 4:19), “His form is not to be seen; no one sees Him with the eye.”(Svetasvatara: Upanishad; 4:20).According to Vedas: “There is no image of Him.” (Yajurveda;32:3);“He is bodiless and pure.”(Yajurveda;40:8);“They enter darkness, those who worship the natural elements (air, water, fire, etc.);“ They sink deeper in darkness, those who worship sambhuti (created things, for example table, chair, idol, etc)”(Yajurveda;40:9);“O friends, do not worship anybody but Him, the Divine One. Praise Him alone.”(Rigveda;8:1:1).The Brahma Sutra of Hinduism is: “There is only one God, not the second; not at all, not at all, not in the least bit.” (Ekam Brahm, dvitiya naste neh na naste kincha).


CHAPTER-4:

THE ONLY ONE GOD OF ALL
Islam urges deep rooted faith in Allah on the basis of knowledge and research and leaves wide open, the thought process for the human intellect to penetrate as far it can reach. “Say: “It is He Who has created you (and made you grow) and made for you the faculties of hearing seeing feeling and understanding: little thanks it is ye give.”(Qur’an;67:23); “They (non believers) will further say: “Had we but listened or used our intelligence we should not (now) be among the Companions of the Blazing Fire!”(Qur’an;67:10). Islam stresses to firmly believe in Allah (one God), the Lord of the worlds, submit to Him and worship Him only. Qur’an repeatedly draws the attention of man towards existence of God through various ‘Signs’ and other arguments. Islamic philosophers of the middle ages did not address the problem of existence of God in any direct fashion. This maybe because in the context of Muslim thought, the existence of God was a prerequisite. However it is evident that the orderly and wonderful phenomena of nature could not be purposeless and accidental. It is pertinent to note that the ‘reason’ properly used must lead man to cognition of God’s existence and, thus of the fact that a definite plan underlines all His creation; reward for pious believers and punishment for rebellious non believers and sinners.
Muslims put their trust in Allah and they seek His help and His guidance. God is High and Supreme but He is very near to the pious thoughtful believers; He answers their prayers and helps them. He loves the people who love Him and forgives their sins. He gives them peace, happiness, knowledge and success. A Muslim  has to believe in Allah, His Angels, His Books, His Messengers, the Day of Judgment and Qadaa and Qadar, which is related to the ultimate power of Allah. Qadaa and Qadar means the Timeless Knowledge of Allah and His power to plan and execute His plans. Allah is the sole Divine; that is He is the Lord, the Creator, the Sovereign, and the Manager of all affairs. Allah is the only true God and every other so-called deity is false. He is One (Ahad), that is, He has no associate in His divinity, His Godhood, His names, or in His attributes. Allah says about Himself: “He is the Lord of the heavens and the Earth and all that is in between them, so worship Him and be patient in His worship; do you know any equal to Him?” (Qur’an;19:65); “Allah there is no God but He, the Living, the Everlasting. Slumber does not seize Him, neither sleep; to Him belongs all that is in the heavens and the Earth. Who is there that shall intercede with Him except by His permission? He knows what is before them and what is behind them, and they do not encompass anything of His knowledge except what He wills. His throne extends over the heavens and the Earth, the preservation of them does not burden Him; He is the High, the Great” (Qur’an;2:255); “He is Allah, there is no god but He, the Knower of the Unseen and the Visible. He is the Most Gracious, Most Merciful. He is Allah, there is no God but He, the King, the Holy One, the Source of Peace, the Keeper of Faith, the Guardian, the Almighty, the Subduer, the Sublime. Glory be to Allah above what they associate with Him. He is Allah, the Creator, the Maker, the Shaper. His are the most beautiful Names. All that is in the heavens and the Earth glorifies Him. He is the Almighty, the Wise” (Qur’an;59:22-24).

Attributes of God:

 The Attributes,Words and Signs and Mercies of Allah are manifest in His Creations, and can never be fully set out in human language, however extended human means may imagined to be, Allah says: “Say: “If the ocean were ink (wherewith to write out) the words of my Lord sooner would the ocean be exhausted than would the words of my Lord even if we added another ocean like it for its aid.”(Qur’an;18:109). However all that is mentioned about Allah’s attributes, whether briefly or in detail and affirmatively or negatively, based on Qur’an, and the traditions of Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) are final some are also mentioned in Bible. It also agrees with the practice of the previous generations of Muslims and the rightly guided scholars who came after them. It is obligatory for a Muslim to take the texts of the Qur’an and the prophetic traditions conceding Allah’s attributes at their face value and to interpret them in a way that is suitable to Almighty Allah. The practice of those who twist the meanings of these texts and understand them in a way that was not intended by Allah and His messenger be rejected. The practice of those who make them devoid of their meanings as conveyed by Allah and His Messenger should also be rejected. As per Qur’an; “He is the One Who has revealed to you the Book. Some of its verses are decisive (muhkmat) they are the foundation of the Book – while others are allegorical (mutshabehat). Those whose hearts are infected with disbelief follow the allegorical part to mislead others and to give it their own interpretation, seeking for its hidden meanings, but no one knows its hidden meanings except Allah. Those who are well grounded in knowledge say: “We believe in it; it is all from our Lord.” None will take heed except the people of understanding.”(Qur’an;3:7). Allah has most perfect attributes;  Allah can be called by any name, signifying the attributes of perfection, suitable to Him. Allah says: “Say: “Invoke God, or invoke the Most Gracious: by whichever name you invoke Him, (He is always the One-for) His are all the attributes of perfection(Asma’ Allah al-Husna), …”(Qur’an;17:110 also 20:8, 59:24, 7:180).

The Ninety Nine Names:

According to Hadith, narrated Abu Huraira: Allah has ninety-nine Names, i.e., one hundred minus one, and whoever believes in their meanings and acts accordingly, will enter Paradise; and Allah is Witr (one) and loves ‘the Witr’ (i.e., odd numbers). (Sahih Bukhari Hadith number 419, Volume.4 ).The Ninety nine beautiful names of Allah (Asma’ Allah al-Husna), based upon His attributes are mentioned in the Islamic traditions (compiled by scholars from Qur’an and Hadith). There is no fixed authentic list of 99 names of God; one compilation which includes many common names and attributes of God are:  The All Beneficent (Ar-Rahman), The Most Merciful (Ar-Rahim), The King, The Sovereign (Al-Malik), The Most Holy (Al-Quddus), The Peace and Blessing (As-Salaam), The Guarantor (Al-Mu’min), The Guardian, The Preserver (Al-Muhaymin), The Almighty, The Self Sufficient (Al-Aziz), The Powerful, The Irresistible (Al-Jabbar), The Tremendous (Al-Mutakabbir), The Creator (Al-Khaliq), The Rightful (Al-Bari’), The Fashioner of Forms (Al-Musawwir), The Ever Forgiving, (Al-Ghaffar), The All Compelling Subduer (Al-Qahhar), The Bestower (Al-Wahhab), The Ever Providing (Ar-Razzaq), The Opener, The Victory Giver (Al-Fattah), The All Knowing, The Omniscient (Al-`Alim), The Restrainer, The Straightener (Al-Qabid), The Expander, The Munificent (Al-Basit), The Sufficient, Who Suffices (Al-Kafi), The Exalter (Ar-Rafi‘e), The Giver of Honour (Al-Mu‘ezz), The Giver of Dishonor (Al-Mudhell), The All Hearing (As-Sami‘e), The All Seeing (Al-Basir), The Judge, The Arbitrator (Al-Hakam), The Utterly Just (Al-‘Adl), Subtle, Unfathomable, (Al-Latif), The All Aware (Al-Khabir), The Forbearing, The Indulgent (Al-Halim) The Magnificent, The Infinite (Al-Azeem), The All Forgiving (Al-Ghafur), The Grateful (Ash-Shakur), The Sublimely Exalted (Al-Aliyy), The Great (Al-Kabir), The Preserver (Al-Hafiz), The Nourisher (Al-Muqit), The Reckoner (Al-Hasib), The Majestic (Al-Jalil), The Bountiful, The Generous (Al-Karim), The Watchful (Ar-Raqib), The Responsive, The Answerer (Al-Mujib), The Vast, The All Encompassing (Al-Wasse‘e), The Wise (Al-Hakeem), The Loving, The Kind One (Al-Wadud), The All Glorious (Al-Majid), The Restrore – The Reviver (Al-Ma’ied), The Witness (Ash-Shaheed), The Truth, The Real (Al-Haqq), The Trustee, The Dependable (Al-Wakil), The Strong (Al-Qawaie), The Firm, The Steadfast (Al-Matin), The Protecting Friend, Patron and Helper (Al-Wali, Al Maula), The All Praiseworthy (Al-Hamid), The Healer (Al-Sha’fii), The Producer, Originator, and Initiator of All (Al-Mubdi, Al Badi’), The Salvator-The Reliever (Al-Kashif), The Giver of Life (Al-Muhyi), The Bringer of Death, The Destroyer (Al-Mumit), The Ever Living (Al-Hayy), The Self Subsisting Sustainer of All (Al-Qayyum), The Perceiver, The Finder, The Unfailing (Al-Wajid), The Illustrious, The Magnificent (Al-Majid), The One, The Unique, Manifestation of Unity (Al-Wahid), The One, the All Inclusive, The Indivisible (Al-Ahad), The Self Sufficient, The Impregnable, The Eternally Besought of All, The Everlasting (As-Samad), The All Able (Al-Qadir),   The All Determiner, The Dominant, (Al-Muqtadir), The Expediter, He Who Brings Forward (Al-Muqaddim), The Delayer, He Who Puts Far Away (Al-Mu’akhir), The First (Al-Awwal), The Last (Al-Akhir), The Manifest, The All Victorious (Az-Zahir), The Hidden, The All Encompassing (Al-Batin), The Master, The Lord of Universe(Rab-ul-Ala’min), The Encompasser (Al-Mahsi), The Most Kind and Righteous (Al-Barr), The Ever Returning, Ever Relenting (At-Tawwab), The Avenger (Al-Muntaqim), The Pardoner, The Effacer of Sins (Al-‘Afuww), The Compassionate, The All Pitying (Ar-Ra’uf), The Owner of All Sovereignty (Malik-al-Mulk), The Lord of Majesty and Generosity (Dhu-al-Jalali wa-al-Ikram), The Equitable, The Requiter (Al-Muqsit), The Gatherer, The Unifier (Al-Jami‘e), The All Rich, The Independent (Al-Ghanaie), The Enricher, The Emancipator (Al-Mughni), The Withholder, The Shielder, the Defender (Al-Mani’e), The Authority (Sultan), The Propitious, The Benefactor (An-Nafi‘e), The Light (An-Nur), The Guide (Al-Hadi), The Incomparable, The Originator (Al-Badi), The Ever Enduring and Immutable (Al-Baqi), The Heir, The Inheritor of All (Al-Warith), The Guide, Infallible Teacher and Knower (Ar-Rashid), The Patient, The Timeless (As-Sabur). Some of His attributes are explained briefly:-
The Cherisher & Sustainer (Lord) of All the Worlds:Allah is The Sustainer’ (Rabb) of all the worlds. The Arabic word  Rabb  embraces a wide complex group of meanings not easily expressed by a single term in another language. It comprises the ideas of having a just claim to the possession of anything and, consequently, authority over it, as well as of rearing, sustaining and fostering anything from its inception to its final completion. Allah is exclusively the sole fosterer and sustainer of all the creations – objective as well as conceptual – and therefore the ultimate source of all authority: “Praise be to Allah the Cherisher and Sustainer (Rabb al- a’lamen) of the Worlds”(Qur’an;1:2); “Then praise be to Allah, Lord of the heavens and Lords of the earth, the Lord of the Worlds.”(Qur’an;45:36); “Cast thy burden upon the LORD, and he shall sustain thee: he shall never suffer the righteous to be moved.”(Psalms;55:22). He is the Lord of all, He creates and nourishes all, the obedient believers as well as the unbelievers, transgressors because this is the world of trial, the full accountability would be on the Day of Judgement.
Omnipotent, the Wise: He is Omnipotent: “He is the Supreme Authority over His servants; and He is the Wise, the Aware.”(Qur’an;6:18). Allah is not living with His creatures on earth, but He is closer to human than their  jugular vein: “It was We who created man and We know what dark suggestions his soul makes to him: for We are nearer to him than (his) jugular vein.”(Qur’an;50:16). It implies that Allah knows more truly the innermost state of human feeling and consciousness than does their own self; “Hast thou not seen that Allah knoweth all that is in the heavens and all that is in the earth? There is no secret conference of three but He is their fourth, nor of five but He is their sixth, nor of less than that or more but He is with them Wheresoever they may be;…”(Qur’an;58:7); “Whither shall I go from thy spirit? or whither shall I flee from thy presence?”(Psalms;139:7).
Omniscient: Allah possess absolute & infinite knowledge: “He Alone has the keys of the unseen treasures, of which no one knows except Him. He knows whatever is in the land and in the sea; there is not a single leaf that falls without His knowledge, there is neither a grain in the darkness of the earth nor anything fresh or dry which has not been recorded in a Clear Book.”(Qur’an;6:59); “Allah alone has the knowledge of the Hour, sends down rain, and knows what is in the wombs (a blessing or a curse). No soul knows what it shall earn tomorrow, and no soul knows in what land it shall die. Surely, Allah is All-knowing, All-aware” (Qur’an;31:34). The Qur’an points to the rich sources of knowledge in the whole universe. “..The knowledge thereof is with my Lord in a Record. My Lord never errs nor forgets”(Qur’an;20:52); “ For a man’s ways are before the eyes of the LORD, and he watches all his paths.”(Proverbs;5:21).
The Creator: He is the Supreme Creator:” He created the Heavens and the Earth in six eons, then He settled Himself on the throne; He manages everything” (Qur’an;10:3). His “settling on the throne” means, sitting in a way that is becoming to His Majesty and Greatness. Nobody except He knows exactly how He is sitting on His throne. He is with His creatures while He is still on His throne. He knows their conditions, hears their sayings, and sees their deeds. He regulates and governs it, as a king does, whose authority is unquestionably recognized; hence He is not, therefore, like the gods of Greeks, and pagans, who were imagined to be in a world apart, careless of mankind, or jealous of mankind. He does not do injustice to anybody, because His fairness is perfect. He is not unaware of his servants’ deeds, because He has perfect supervision and comprehensive knowledge. He provides for the poor and the broken. God Most High was a Creator before He created and a Provider before He bestowed provision. Closeness to God Most High and remoteness from Him do not refer to any spatial distance, great or small, nor do they refer to the nobility or humility in His sight. Rather the one obedient to Him is close to him, in indefinable fashion. Closeness, remoteness approaching all in fact refer to God’s action towards man (i.e., it is not man who in the strict sense defines relation to Allah; it is rather Allah who determines that relation). Proximity to God in Paradise and standing before Him are similarly realities of indefinable modality. Allah has no equal because His Attributes are perfect: “There is nothing whatsoever like unto Him. He is the All-hearing, the All-seeing” (Qur’an;42:11); “no slumber or sleep seizes Him” (Qur’an;2:255), because His life is perfect and eternal. Bible also mentions: “Have you not known? Have you not heard? The LORD is the everlasting God, the Creator of the ends of the earth. He does not faint or grow weary, his understanding is Unsearchable.”(Isaiah;40:28). However there is dichotomy with in Bible: “for in six days the LORD made heaven and earth, the sea, and all that is in them, and rested the seventh day; therefore the LORD blessed the Sabbath day and hallowed it.”(Exodus;20:18).
Uncreated:Allah knows, but not as human knows; He has power, but not as human have power. People speak by means of the speech organs and sounds, whereas God Most High speaks with neither organs nor sounds. Sounds are created, and the word of God Most High is uncreated. He is a thing, but unlike other things; by saying “thing,” it is intended merely to affirm His reality. He has neither body nor substance, neither accidental property nor limit, neither opposite nor like nor similitude. A human being require some material to make some thing i.e. a carpenter requires wood, nails tools and other material to make a table.  God Most High creates things out of nothing and He has knowledge of them in pre-eternity, before their creation. The Prophet (peace be upon him), said: “His veil is light. Had He removed it, the sublimity of His countenance would have burnt all that His sight reached” (Muslim and Ibn Majah). The Prophet (peace be upon him) said about the Dajjal (the anti-Christ) that “he is one-eyed and your Lord is not one-eyed” (Bukhari and Muslim). It is beyond the human senses to perceive this.
The First and the Last, The Evident and The Immanent: According to Qur’an: “He is the First and the Last the Evident and the Immanent: and He has full knowledge of all things.” (Qur’an;57:3); “They shall perish, but thou shalt endure: yea, all of them shall wax old like a garment; as a vesture shalt thou change them, and they shall be changed: But thou art the same, and thy years shall have no end.”(Psalms;102:26-27). Allah is Evident in so far as there is ample evidence of His existence and providence all around the universe. On the other hand, Allah is Hidden in so far as human intellect cannot grasp His essence nor can He be seen in the present world. Narrated by Abu Hurairah; The Prophet (peace be on him) said: “Thou art the First, so that there was nothing before Thee; and Thou art the Last, so that there is nothing after Thee; and Thou art Evident, (or Ascendant) so that there is nothing above Thee, and Thou art the Hidden, the Knower of hidden things, so that there is nothing hidden from Thee.” (Extract from Sahih Muslim, Hadith Number: 1253). According to some Christians, Jesus, claimed divinity when he said: “I am Alpha and Omega, the beginning and the ending, saith the Lord, which is, and which was, and which is to come, the Almighty.” (King James Version; Revelation; 1:8) These are the attributes of God. However in the Revised Standard Version, biblical scholars corrected the translation and wrote: “I am the Alpha and the Omega,” says the Lord God, who is and who was and who is to come, the Almighty.”(RSV;Revelation;1:8). A correction was also made in the New American Bible produced by Catholics. The translation of that verse has been amended to put it in its correct context as follows: “The Lord God says: ‘I am the Alpha and the Omega, the one who is and who was, and who is to come, the Almighty.’ ” Hence after this correction, it becomes evident that this was a statement of God wrongly attributed to Jesus. The Bible also mentions, God as Invisible (Job;23:8-9) and Un-searchable (Job;11:7; 37:23;Psalms; 145:3; Isaiah; 40:28).
Not Similar to His Creatures: The Muslims reject the approach of those who exaggerate, who gave physical interpretation that makes Allah similar to some of His creatures. All that He assigned to Himself or what His Messenger described Him with, of names and attributes is to be believed as such. All what He negated about Himself or what His Messenger negated about Him is to be negated. That negation implies the affirmation of its perfect opposite. What He or His Messenger did not mention about Him is not to be discussed. It is essential to adhere to this approach, because what Allah affirmed or negated concerning Himself is a statement He made about Himself. He knows Himself best. His words are most just and trustful, and people cannot know everything about Him. What Allah’s Messenger affirmed or negated about Him is a statement that he made about Allah. Besides knowing Allah better than anyone, he is the most truthful, sincere, and eloquent among people. Thus, in what Allah said and what His Prophet (peace be upon him) said concerning His names and attributes is the truth, knowledge, and clarification. Therefore, the believers do not hesitate in accepting it. However, Islam reject two concepts: Firstly to say or believe that Allah’s attributes are similar to those of his creatures; and secondly to say or believe that Allah’s attributes are like such and such because; “..there is none like unto Him”(Qur’an;112:4); “..there is none like me in all the earth.”(Exodus;9:14).
Unique: He is unique. Certain attributes of Allah like His Hand, His Face a Self (nafs); are part of “unknown-allegorical”(Mutashabehat,Qur’an;3:7)  which can not be perceived by human senses and no question can be raised concerning their modality (bila kayf). It cannot be said that His hand represents His power of His bestowal of bounty, because such an interpretation would require a negation of an attribute. Rather, His hand is an attribute, of unknowable modality, in the same way that His anger and pleasure are two attributes of unknowable modality. Allah has a glorious and dignified face: ” All that is on earth will perish; There will remain the Face (Self) of your Lord, majestic and splendid” (Qur’an;55:26-27). Human can not perceive it. Allah has two generous hands: “No, both His hands are wide open; He spends how He pleases” (Qur’an;5:64); “They do not esteem Allah with the esteem that is due to Him. The whole Earth will be His handful on the Day of Resurrection, and the Heavens will be rolled up in His right hand. Glory be to Him and exalted is He above that which they associate with Him” (Qur’an;39:67). Human can not perceive it. Allah said to Noah: “And build the ark under Our eyes as We reveal” (Qur’an;11:37). He gives sovereignty to whom He pleases and takes away sovereignty from whom He pleases; He exalts whom He wills and He abases whom He wills. In His hand is all good and He is powerful over everything. “…There is nothing whatsoever like unto Him; He is the All-hearing, the All-seeing” (Qur’an;42:11); “Wherefore thou art great, O LORD God: for there is none like thee, neither is there any God beside thee, according to all that we have heard with our ears.”(2 Samuel;7:22  )
The Merciful: The Mercy of Allah is the one of the grandest themes of the Qur’an. To contemplate these boundless gifts of God, the verse: “In the name of God, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful”: is placed before every Chapter (Sura) of the Qur’an (except the ninth), and repeated at the beginning of every act (even of routine nature like eating, reading, working) by the Muslims who dedicate their lives to God, and whose hope is in His Mercy. The Arabic words “Rahman” and “Rahim” translated as; “Most Gracious” and “Most Merciful” are both intensive forms referring to different aspects of God’s attribute of Mercy.  The Arabic intensive is more suited to express God’s attributes than the superlative degree in English.  The latter implies a comparison with other beings, or with other times or places, while there is no being like unto God, and He is independent of Time and Place. Mercy may imply pity, long-suffering, patience, and forgiveness, all of which the sinner needs and God Most Merciful bestows in abundant measure. But there is a Mercy that goes before even the need arises, the Grace which is ever watchful, and flows from God Most Gracious to all His creatures, protecting them, preserving them, guiding them, and leading them to clearer light and higher life.  He accepts of repentance of believers due to the ‘Mercy’, which He has decreed upon Himself, He says: “When those who believe in Our revelations come to you, say: “Peace be upon you. Your Lord has decreed mercy upon Himself. If anyone among you commits evil because of ignorance and thereafter repents and mends his ways; you will find Allah Forgiving, Merciful.”(Qur’an;6:54& 85:14). God’s attribute of Mercy is also highlighted in Bible at Exodus;34:6-7 and many other places: “The earth, O LORD, is full of thy mercy: teach me thy statutes.”(Psalms;119:64); “Therefore turn thou to thy God: keep mercy and judgment, and wait on thy God continually.”(Hosea;12:6); “For a small moment have I forsaken thee; but with great mercies will I gather thee.”(Isaiah;54:7); “But God, who is rich in mercy, for his great love wherewith he loved us,”(Ephesians;2:4).  
Justice: He helps all with justices and fairness: “The fact is that Allah is your Protector and He is the best of all helpers.”(Qur’an;3:150); “Rest assured that Allah does not wrong anyone even by an atom’s weight. If someone does a good deed He increases it many fold and also gives an extra great reward on His own.”(Qur’an;4:40). He is Sustainer of humanity whether believers or non believers and all other creatures:  “We bestowed on all – these as well those – out of the bounties of your Lord; the bounties of your Sustainer are not confined.”(Qur’an;17:20). He answers the prayers: “Call on Me; I will answer your (Prayer)…!”(Qur’an;40.60). His Messenger told, that He descends to the near sky before the last third of every night and says: “Who prays to Me and I will answer his prayers? Who asks Me and I will give him? Who asks My forgiveness and I will forgive him?” (Bukhari and Muslim). It is mentioned in Bible: “Touching the Almighty, we cannot find him out: he is excellent in power, and in judgment, and in plenty of justice: he will not afflict.”(Job;37:23). On the Day of Judgment He will judge among His people. He is the Doer of what He wills. True knowledge based on clear proof and indisputable evidence acquired by experience or experiment or by both.
He Does What He Wills: To Him belongs the Kingdom of the Heavens and the Earth, He does what ever He Wills:“ Whenever He intends a thing, He needs only to say: “Be,” and it is.”(Qur’an;36:82); “There is nothing whatever like unto Him, He is the All-hearing, the All-seeing. To Him belongs the keys of the Heavens and the Earth. He enlarges and restricts provisions to whom He wills. Surely He has knowledge of everything” (Qur’an;42:11-12); “He creates what He pleases. He gives, to whom He wills, females, and He gives, to whom He wills, males, or He couples them, males and females; and He makes whom He wills barren. Surely, He is the Knowing, the Powerful”(Qur’an;42:49-50). Despite being All Powerful, God does not wrong the mankind: “Lo! Allah wrongs not mankind in aught; but mankind wrong themselves.”(Qur’an;10:44).
Subtle, Unfathomable, The All Aware: Allah is Latif,  fine, subtle, so fine and subtle as to be invisible to the physical eye; so fine as to be imperceptible to the senses; figuratively, so pure as to be above the mental or spiritual vision of ordinary men but at the same time He is aware of all things. It is beyond the capability of human eye to see God In this world, Allah says: “Vision cannot perceive Him, but He perceives all vision. He is the Subtle, (Latif, Incomprehensible), the All-aware” (Qur’an;6:103). Bible also confirms that God can not bee seen (John;1:18, 1Timothy;6:16, Exodus;33:20).Prophet Moses (peace be upon him) requested for the vision of Allah: “And when Moses came to Our appointed tryst and his Lord had spoken unto him, he said: My Lord! Show me (Thy self), that I may gaze upon Thee. He said: Thou wilt not see Me, but gaze upon the mountain! If it stand still in its place, then thou wilt see Me. And when his Lord revealed (His) glory to the mountain He sent it crashing down. And Moses fell down senseless. And when he woke he said: Glory unto Thee! I turn unto Thee repentant, and I am the first of (true) believers.”(Qur’an;7:143). God Most High will be seen in the Hereafter, visible to the believers in Paradise with their corporeal vision as mentioned in Qur’an: “Upon that day (Day of Judgment) some faces shall be radiant, gazing upon their Lord”(Qur’an;75:22-23). This is said without any implication of anthropomorphism, or any notion of quality or quantity, for there is not a fixed distance between Him and His creation (to permit any comparison); “Behold, I go forward, but he is not there; and backward, but I cannot perceive him; on the left hand I seek him, but I cannot behold him; I turn to the right hand, but I cannot see him.”(Job;23:8-9).
Belief in Allah, His names, and His attributes instills in the individual the love and glorification of God that result in obeying God’s instructions and avoiding His prohibitions. These are the means of achieving ultimate happiness in this life and the hereafter for both the individual and the society: “Whoever, male or female, does righteous deed, while believing, We shall assuredly grant him a goodly life, and We shall reward them according to the best of their deeds” (Qur’an;16:97).

Experience Existence of God through His Signs,Works:

Allah is not visible to human being, then the question arises; How can human know about His existence? Allah answers: “Say: “Look at whatever exists in the heavens and the earth.” Signs and warnings do not benefit those people who do not believe.”(Qur’an;10:101);“There are many signs in the heavens and the earth which they pass by; yet they pay no attention to them!”(Qur’an;12:105). The importance of signs can be explained by a simple parable:  If one is present at the seaside and observe some foot marks on the sand, straightaway it comes to mind that some one has walked through this area. No one would say that these foot prints have been made just by coincidence or by chance through interaction of sand, sea waves and the wind. As it is per sure with the common sense that the precise foot marks with particular shape, size and intervals are only made by the human foot. If some one ponders over it, then from the size, depth and interval of foot prints one can even find out, weather the person who left those foot prints was a child, woman or male. The experts with more knowledge in this field can reveal much more information like weight, age etc. In rural areas of South Asia, it is a common practice to get the services of a foot print expert (Khojee) to trace the thief, who by observation follows the foot prints to locate the thief. From one sign (foot mark) so much can be revealed without having seen the individual with eyes. Similarly the forensic experts by picking up samples of blood, hair, cloth and finger prints from a site of crime can determine the presence of specific person by matching the DNA or finger prints, although no one would have seen the individual at the site of crime. It is through these ‘signs’ that the presence of and individual at a particular place is established. While various arguments mentioned earlier i.e.  Cosmological, Teleological, Ontological, Moral and Religious Experience do support, the Islamic traditions demands the people to look and ponder over signs of Allah, which will enable them to comprehend the existence of God.
Hence the existence of Allah, the Supreme Creator, is evident from the numerous signs all around ; what one has to do is just to ponder over them and use common sense. The galaxies, the stars, sun, moon the earth, their rotation, movement, the balance of planets through gravitational system, changing of day to night, rains, winds, life, death and many more, all this can not exist by chance. There is some one All Powerful who has created all this with a purpose and ordained laws to govern the universe; He is Allah, The Mighty, All Powerful. The Qur’an draws human attention towards these signs: “Verily in the heavens and the earth are Signs for those who believe.”(Qur’an;45:3);“And in the creation of yourselves and the fact that animals are scattered (through the earth) are Signs for those of assured Faith. And in the alternation of Night and Day and the fact that Allah sends down Sustenance from the sky and revives therewith the earth after its death and the change of the winds are Signs for those that are wise”.(Qur’an;45:4-5);“And He has subjected (made of service) to you (human) as from Him all that is in the heavens and on earth: behold in that are Signs indeed for those who reflect.”(Qur’an;45:13). “It is Allah Who causes the seed-grain and the date-stone to split and sprout.  He causes the living to issue from the dead and He is the one to cause the dead to issue from the living. That is Allah; then how are ye deluded away from the truth?”(Qur’an;6:95).


CHAPTER-5:

THE EVER LIVING SIGN (MIRACLE)
In the primitive period, Allah gave signs (miracles) to His messengers as a token while many people believed the others did not. Some ignorant people put strange demands to the prophets: “Those who have no knowledge ask: “Why does Allah not speak to us face to face or send us a sign?” The same demand was made by those before them: they all have the same mentality. We have already shown clear signs to those whose faith is firm (in their hearts).”(Qur’an;2:118).The miracles granted by Allah to His previous messengers did not have the long lasting effects. Prophet Moses (peace be upon him) brought the Israelites from Egypt, while performing miracles and wonders, but immediately afterwards the Israelites transgressed and indulged in worship of Calf. Jesus Christ (peace be upon him) performed many miracles but the Jews rejected him. Allah says: “And We refrain from sending the Signs (miracles) only because the men of former generations treated them as false: We sent the She-camel: to the Thamud to open their eyes but they treated her wrongfully: We only send the Signs by way of terror (and warning from evil).”(Qur’an;17:59). It is the way of Allah, if the people demanded the sign (miracle), which were provided and even then they declined to believe, then they were entitled for divine punishments in various forms. In the present era many Christians and Jews do not believe in the miracles performed by biblical prophets, considering them myths, while some try to justify them through rational or scientific arguments.
History records many miracles performed through Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) but Allah in His Divine wisdom provided Qur’an, the ever living sign (miracle) through Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him), which any one can read by himself, to discover that Qur’an is the true word of Allah, the last book of guidance, light and wisdom for the humanity till eternity. Islam encourages reasoning, discussions and dialogue. The Qur’an provides reason and rationale for the purpose, creation and existence of universe. It is the living sign of God and truthfulness of His last messenger, Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him). Allah says: “O mankind! Verily there hath come to you a convincing proof (Qur’an) from your Lord: for We have sent unto you a light (that is) manifest. Then those who believe in Allah and hold fast to Him soon will He admit them to Mercy and Grace from Him and guide them to Himself by a straight Way.”(Qur’an;4:174-175). The Qur’an contains more than six thousand ayaats (‘Signs’), each verse (ayah), of Qur’an is a sign from the Lord, which speaks of the greatness of its originator. It is a historical fact that Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) was ‘Ummi’ i.e. unlettered (illiterate) (Qur’an;7:157). Revelation of Qur’an in Arabic, unmatched in its eloquence and beauty, through the mouth of un-learned (Isaiah;29:12) prophet is miraculous. The prophesy of Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) and Qur’an (word of God, i.e. ‘words in his mouth’) is mentioned in Bible at Deuteronomy; 18:18,19. The universal challenge of Qur’an to produce even one ayah (verse) like Qur’an (Qur’an;2:23) is yet to be answered. This is the only scripture in the world which is available to the humanity in its original revealed form and will continue to be as such because Allah has taken responsibility to guard it (Qur’an;15:9) . It is the only scripture which is memorized by thousands of Muslims of all ages, nationalities, categories and professions (doctors, engineers, scientists, clerics and common people) the world over from last fourteen centuries, hence is transferred from generation to generation accurately. It is the most recited book in the world.
Qur’an is not a book of ‘science, but a book of ‘signs’ (ayaats), there are more than thousand verses of Qur’an referring to various subjects of science, such as astronomy, physics, geography, geology, oceanology, biology, botany, zoology, medicine, physiology, embryology as well as general science, mostly un known to humanity at the time of its revelation, fourteen centuries ago. God says: “Soon shall We show them Our signs in the universe and in their own selves, until it becomes clear to them that this Qur’an is indeed the truth. Is it not enough that your Lord is a witness over everything?”(Qur’an;41:53); “Do not the Unbelievers see that the heavens and the earth were joined together (as one unit of Creation) before We clove them asunder? (Big Bang) We made from water every living thing. Will they not then believe?”(Qur’an;21:30);“Moreover He Comprehended in His design the sky and it had been (as) smoke: He said to it and to the earth: “Come ye together willingly or unwillingly. “They said: “We do come (together) in willing obedience.”(Qur’an;41:11);”Who hath created and further given order and proportion” (Qur’an;87:2). Allah says: “O mankind! We created you from a single pair of a male and a female, and made you into nations and tribes that you might get to know one another. Surely the noblest of you in the sight of Allah is he who is the most righteous. Allah is All-Knowledgeable, All-Aware.” (Qur’an;49:13). The complex process of pregnancy from conception till child birth, discovered recently is accurately narrated in Qur’an;23:13-14. It is found that the Qur’anic information on science does not conflict with the established scientific facts. It may go against certain scientific hypothesis or theories, which are not based on facts as many a times, the science retracts its position.
The scientific facts mentioned in Qur’an have been discovered during last few centuries. But science has not advanced to a level where it can confirm every statement of the Qur’an referring to scientific information. According to Dr.Zakir Naik; suppose 80% of all that is mentioned in the Qur’an has been proved 100% correct, while for the remaining 20%, science makes no categorical statement, since it has not advanced to a level, where it can either prove or disprove these statements. With the limited knowledge through science available today, one cannot say for sure whether even a single percentage or a single verse of the Qur’an from this 20% portion is wrong. Thus when 80% of the Qur’an is 100% correct and the remaining 20% is not disproved, logic says that even the 20% portion is correct. [The details of scientific facts mentioned in Qur’an have been deliberated upon in the book ‘Qur’an and Science’ by Dr.Zakir Naik & “The Bible, The Qur’an and Science” by Dr. Maurice Bucaille, a French doctor]. How an unlettered person brought up among the most backward desert Arabs, away from the centers of civilization and knowledge, could accurately provide the scientific information mostly discovered recently? It is God, the Creator alone Who could provide so accurate scientific information. Consequently as the scientific information mentioned in Qur’an is true then, by inference the other metaphysical information mentioned in Qur’an (correspondingly also in Bible) like; existence of God, angles, eschatology (death, judgement, heaven, hell, and the final destiny of the soul and of humankind) must also be true.
Humanity has much more to learn from Qur’an if they ponder over it (Qur’an;38:29).  Allah says: “This Book (Al-Qur’an) which We have sent down to you (O Muhammad) is highly blessed, so that they may ponder upon its verses and the men of understanding may learn a lesson from it.”(Qur’an;4:82). There are many prophecies, which have been fulfilled and the accuracy of historic narratives is confirmed through latest research and archeological evidence. The coherence in Qur’an is amazing that it gives evidence to its Divine origin through numerous  ‘Internal Evidences’, like one is quoted here: The Qur’an reminds the Christian in one short sentence to remember Adam; who neither had father nor a mother, it does not make him son of God. So that the likeness of Adam is the likeness of Jesus, they were nothing and then they became something; the servants of God (Qur’an;3:59). An equation has been set between Jesus and Adam, the Arabic word (mithel) has been used which means “likeness”, it says Jesus and Adam are equal. It can be found through the index of the Qur’an, that the name ‘Isa’  (‘Isa’ is Arabic for Jesus) is mentioned 25 times, similarly the name ‘Adam’ has also been mentioned 25 times. Dr.Gary Miller adds that if this process is followed through, it will be found that in the Qur’an there are 8 places were an Ayah says something is like something else, using this (Mithel), it will be found in every case and take both sides of it whatever that word is, look it up in the index and it will be lets say 110 times and lookup the other word and it will be said to be equal to the same 110. That is quite a project of co-ordination even in the present era of computers and high-technology, but impossible to even imagine, fourteen hundred years ago for some one unlettered, dictating a book over 23 years in small and big parts at different timings, places and occasions at times spontaneously receiving Revelations in response to some query raised by a believer or non believer! It’s amazing; there is no doubt that Qur’an is a living miracle manifesting existence of The One Creator-Allah.


CONCLUSION

The concept of a Supreme Being, the Creator and Ruler of heaven and earth is part to human nature. He is commonly called God but all the beautiful names in any language, or by whichever name He is invoked, signifying the attributes of perfection belongs to Him, (He is always the One-for). Worship of God or gods is probably the most basic element of religion, which attempts to answer questions like: existence of God, creation of universe and humanity, human sufferings, evil, death and its aftermath. The main issue is about the existence of God and to prove it rationally. God is infinite, direct comprehension of His essence is beyond human senses. He can however be perceived through His ‘signs’. The rational arguments for the existence of God are: Cosmological, Teleological, Ontological, Morality, Probability and through Religious Experience.  All those claiming to be the followers of Patriarch Abraham (peace be upon him) assert monotheism, but it is Islam which can lay claim as true legacy of Abraham, Tawheed. The complex doctrine of “Trinitarianism” (Trinity) called as ‘Trinitarian Monotheism” by Christianity; that; The Father (God), the Son (Jesus), and the Holy Spirit are one is totally opposed to monothisim preached by Prophet Abraham (peace be upon him). The “Trinitarian Monotheism” has been rejected by several Christian denominations and Christian-based religions like  Arianism, Jehovah’s Witnesses and by some adherents of Unitarianism. Opposite to Tawhid is Shirk (associating partners with God), polytheism is the source of idolatry. Shirk is considered synonymous with unbelief rejected by Islam. The Muslims strictly believe in Allah (one God), the Lord of the worlds and only worship Him without images.
The attributes of God like; The Creator, The Merciful, The Unique, and many more are absolute, mostly they are mentioned in Qur’an and Bible. Though God can not be seen visually, the existence of God can be experienced through His signs & works in cosmology and with in human creation, but they are not perceptible to the rebellious people because they have shut the doors of wisdom and faith. The effects of miracles granted to the previous messengers did not last long. Moses (peace be upon him) brought the Israelites from Egypt, performing miracles and wonders, but immediately thereafter the Israelites transgressed and indulged in worship of Calf. Jesus Christ (peace be upon him) performed many miracles but the Jews rejected him. Islam encourages reasoning, discussions and dialogue. Allah in His Divine wisdom provided Qur’an, the living sign (miracle) through Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him), which any one can read by himself, to discover that Qur’an; full of wisdom and guidance is nothing but the true word of Allah. Qur’an provides solutions to all the problems faced by humanity and answers to the basic questions like: existence of God, creation of universe and humanity, human sufferings, evil, death and its aftermath etc. The Qur’an contains many verses, referring to various subjects of science but they do not conflict with science, exhibiting its divine origin and existence of Creator. In his book ‘Islam, a Way of Life’, world’s leading authority on orientalism and Middle East, Princeton Professor Philip K. Hitti writes; “The Koran is dictated (by Allah). Any quotation from the Koran can be introduced with ”saith Allah”. It is now for the mankind to make their own choice; weather to follow the distorted and corrupted ancient scriptures or the last message of divine guidance available in its pure form- The Qur’an!  Those  who reject these signs are doomed: “Evil as an example are people who reject Our signs and wrong their own souls.”(Qur’an;7:177).
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Universe, Science and God

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Chapter1 : Introduction

e-Book

A central, common core of Islam, Judaism & Christianity is the affirmation of the reality of One, and Only One, God. Adherents of Abrahamic faiths believe that there is a God who created the universe out of nothing and who has absolute sovereignty over all his creation; this includes, of course, human beings, who are not only utterly dependent on this creative power but also sinful and who, or so the faithful must believe, can only make adequate sense of their lives by accepting, without question, God’s ordinances for them. The varieties of atheism are numerous, but all atheists reject such a set of beliefs. In philosophy there are three major, purely rational, arguments for the existence of God that have had a significant influence on the history of philosophy of religion. A wide variety of arguments exist which can be categorized as metaphysical, logical, empirical, or subjective. The existence of God is subject to lively debate both in philosophy, the philosophy of religion being almost entirely devoted to the question—and in popular culture. Certain theists acknowledge that belief in the existence of God may not be amenable to demonstration or refutation, but rests on faith alone. The atheistic conclusion is that the arguments and evidence both indicate there is insufficient reason to believe in the existence of God, and that personal subjective religious experiences are indistinguishable from misapprehension.

Philosophers and theists have come out with many popular arguments to support the existence of God: The cosmological argument argues that there was a “first cause”, or “prime mover” who is identified as God. The teleological argument argues that the universe’s order and complexity are best explained by reference to a creator God. It starts with a rather more complicated claim about the world, i.e. that it exhibits order and design. The hypothesis of Intelligent design proposes that certain features of the universe and of living things are the product of an intelligent cause. The ontological argument is based on arguments about a “being greater than which cannot be conceived”. The anthropic argument suggests that basic facts, such as humanity’s existence, are best explained by the existence of God. Some philosophers see the existence of Qualia (or the hard problem of consciousness) as strong arguments against materialism and therefore for the existence of material and immaterial entities. The transcendental argument suggests that logic, science, ethics, and other serious matters do not make sense in the absence of God, and that atheistic arguments must ultimately refute themselves if pressed with rigorous consistency. The atheists believe that existence of God cannot be proved through science. However the Muslims scholars like Harun Yahya, Dr.Zakir Naik and many others have done a lot of research work to prove it scientifically, which forms basis for this paper. Let’s start with the biggest thing, The Universe.


Chapter-2: Universe Models

Universe: Sign of Creator:

The universe is commonly defined as the totality of everything that exists, including all matter and energy, the planets, stars, galaxies, and the contents of intergalactic space. Definitions and usage vary and similar terms include the cosmos, the world and nature. Scientific observation of earlier stages in the development of the universe, which can be seen at great distances, suggests that the universe has been governed by the same physical laws and constants throughout most of its extent and history. There are various multiverse theories, in which physicists have suggested that our universe might be one among many universes that likewise exist.
The universe is immensely large and possibly infinite in volume. The region visible from Earth (the observable universe) is a sphere with a radius of about 46 billion light years, based on where the expansion of space has taken the most distant objects observed. For comparison, the diameter of a typical galaxy is only 30,000 light-years, and the typical distance between two neighbouring galaxies is only 3 million light-years. As an example, our Milky Way Galaxy is roughly 100,000 light years in diameter, and our nearest sister galaxy, the Andromeda Galaxy, is located roughly 2.5 million light years away. There are probably more than 100 billion galaxies [1011] in the observable universe. Typical galaxies range from dwarfs with as few as ten million [107] stars up to giants with one trillion [1012]  stars, all orbiting the galaxy’s center of mass. A 2010 study by astronomers estimated that the observable universe contains 300 sextillion  3×1013stars.
The part where the Universe isn’t just bigger than you can possibly comprehend, but according to recent evidence, billions of times larger than that. What It Says: That the universe is big, so big, that just that fact, just its mere bigness, is enough to blow your tiny ant mind. And it just keeps getting bigger. Let’s examine the famous Hubble Ultra Deep Field image, the most massive photo ever taken. It shows that there are approximately 10,000 galaxies. Each of those galaxies contains anywhere from ten million to one trillion stars. The average star is roughly a million times the size of Earth.

And yet, with all that junk, the Universe is more than 90 percent empty space. All of that, in this tiny photo. A photo that took 400 orbits and 800 exposures to take. And the kicker? The photo covers one thirteen-millionth of the entire night sky.

If you are like us, it leaves you alternately awash with spiritual wonder and horrified feelings of utter insignificance. Actually imagining just how infinitesimal you are in the scope of the universe is like autoerotic asphyxiation: it’s not as pleasant as you would think, and if you do it wrong you can end up a vegetable. You possibly imagine that much space and that many planets and stars and atoms smashing together without intelligent life forming? Now its just a matter of getting around that pesky general relativity and well be chilling with aliens in no time. Or, like, a million years.
So all that just said about how big the universe is (at least 90 billion light years)? That is small beans. The Cosmological Horizon is here to make your day a whole lot more complicated. Since we can only observe stellar bodies that have had some effects on us (usually bombarding us with light), there is an outer limit to what we can see of the universe. Hence, the observable universe. What about the rest? The parts of the universe beyond our Starcraft-style fog of war? Well, according to some math we have no interest in going into, the size of the actual universe is so large that if the universe we just described (the impossibly, mind-bogglingly large one) were the size of a quarter, the actual universe would be the size of the Earth.  Level Of Mind Blowingness: The sound of one hand clapping for a tree falling in the woods while no ones around except a guy whose skull is wired with C4 explosive. Hence the mere vastness of universe indicates the greatness of its Great Creator.

The Eternal Universe:

Towards the end of the 19th century, atheists formulated a world view that they thought explained everything; they denied that the universe was created saying that it had no beginning but had existed forever. They claimed that the universe had no purpose but that its order and balance were the result of chance; they believed that the question of how human beings and other living things came into being was answered by Darwinism. They believed that Marx or Durkheim had explained history and sociology, and that Freud had explained psychology on the basis of atheist assumptions.
However, these views were later invalidated in the 20th century by scientific, political and social developments. Many and various discoveries in the fields of astronomy, biology, psychology and social sciences have nullified the bases of all atheist suppositions. In his book, God: The Evidence, The Reconciliation of Faith and Reason in a Postsecular World, the American scholar Patrick Glynn from the George Washington University writes:
The past two decades of research have overturned nearly all the important assumptions and predictions of an earlier generation of modern secular and atheist thinkers relating to the issue of God. Modern thinkers assumed that science would reveal the universe to be ever more random and mechanical; instead it has discovered unexpected new layers of intricate order that bespeak an almost unimaginably vast master design. Modern psychologists predicted that religion would be exposed as a neurosis and outgrown; instead, religious commitment has been shown empirically to be a vital component of basic mental health…
Few people seem to realize this, but by now it should be clear: Over the course of a century in the great debate between science and faith, the tables have completely turned. In the wake of Darwin, atheists and agnostics like Huxley and Russell could point to what appeared to be a solid body of testable theory purportedly showing life to be accidental and the universe radically contingent. Many scientists and intellectuals continue to cleave to this worldview. But they are increasingly pressed to almost absurd lengths to defend it. Today the concrete data point strongly in the direction of the God hypothesis. Science, which has been presented as the pillar of atheist, materialist philosophy, turns out to be the opposite. As another writer puts it, “The strict materialism that excludes all purpose, choice and spirituality from the world simply cannot account for the data pour in from labs and observatories.”
Assuming the validity of the old model of an ‘Eternal Universe’, Hugh David Politzer, an American theoretical physicist who shared the 2004 Nobel Prize in Physics, opposed the idea of a creation: The universe was not a created object, if it were, then it would have to be created instantaneously by God and brought into existence from nothing. To admit creation, one has to admit, in the first place, the existence of a moment when the universe did not exist, and that something came out of nothingness. This is something to which science can not accede. By supporting the idea of an eternal universe against that of creation, Politzer thought that science was on his side. However, very soon, the fact that Politzer alluded to by his words, “if it is so, we must accept the existence of a creator”, that is, that the universe had a beginning, was proven.

The Big Bang:

This proof came as a result of the “Big Bang” theory, perhaps the most important concept of 20th century astronomy. The Big Bang theory was formulated after a series of discoveries. In 1929, the American astronomer, Edwin Hubble, noticed that the galaxies of the universe were continually moving away from one another and that the universe was expanding. If the flow of time in an expanding universe were reversed, then it emerged that the whole universe must have come from a single point. Astronomers assessing the validity of Hubble’s discovery were faced with the fact that this single point was a “metaphysical” state of reality in which there was an infinite gravitational attraction with no mass. Matter and time came into being by the explosion of this mass-less point. In other words, the universe was created from nothing. In the face of proven scientific facts, atheists have been squeezed into a corner. Anthony Flew, an atheist professor of philosophy at the University of Reading and the author of Atheistic Humanism, makes this interesting confession:
Notoriously, confession is good for the soul. I will therefore begin by confessing that the Stratonician atheist has to be embarrassed by the contemporary cosmological consensus. For it seems that the cosmologists are providing a scientific proof of what St. Thomas contended could not be proved philosophically; namely, that the universe had a beginning. So long as the universe can be comfortably thought of as being not only without end but also without beginning, it remains easy to urge that its brute existence, and whatever are found to be its most fundamental features, should be accepted as the explanatory ultimates. Although I believe that it remains still correct, it certainly is neither easy nor comfortable to maintain this position in the face of the Big Bang story.
Some materialists have a relatively logical view of this matter. For example, the English materialist physicist, H.P. Lipson, unwillingly accepts the scientific fact of creation. He writes: I think …that we must…admit that the only acceptable explanation is creation. I know that this is anathema to physicists, as indeed it is to me, but we must not reject that we do not like if the experimental evidence supports it.
Thus, the fact arrived at finally by modern astronomy is this: time and matter were brought into being by an eternally powerful Creator independent of both of them. The eternal power that created the universe in which we live is God who is the possessor of infinite might, knowledge and wisdom.

Creation Models: Criticism & Analysis:

It is patently obvious that the Big Bang means the creation of the universe out of nothing and this is surely evidence of willful creation. Regarding this fact, some materialist astronomers and physicists have tried to advance alternative explanations to oppose this reality. Mention has already been made of the steady state theory and it was pointed out it was clung to, by those who were uncomfortable with the notion of “creation from nothingness”, despite all the evidence to the contrary in an attempt to shore up their philosophy. There are also a number of models that have been advanced by materialists who accept the Big Bang theory but try to exorcise it of the notion of creation. One of these is the “oscillating” universe model; another is the “quantum model of universe”. Let us examine these theories and see why they are invalid.

Oscillating Universe Model:

The oscillating universe model was advanced by the astronomers who disliked the idea the Big Bang was the beginning of the universe. In this model, it is claimed that the present expansion of the universe will eventually be reversed at some point and begin to contract. This contraction will cause everything to collapse into a single point that will then explode again, initiating a new round of expansion. This process, they say, is repeated infinitely in time. This model also holds that the universe has experienced this transformation an infinite number of times already and that it will continue to do so forever. In other words, the universe exists for eternity but it expands and collapses at different intervals with a huge explosion punctuating each cycle. The universe we live in is just one of those infinite universes going through the same cycle.
This is nothing but a feeble attempt to accommodate the fact of the Big Bang to notions about an infinite universe. The proposed scenario is unsupported by the results of scientific research over the last 15-20 years, which show that it is impossible for such an “oscillating” universe idea to come into being. Furthermore the laws of physics offer no reason why a contracting universe should explode again after collapsing into a single point: it ought to stay just as it is. Nor do they offer a reason why an expanding universe should ever begin to contract in the first place.
Even if we allow that there is some mechanism by which this cycle of contraction-explosion-expansion does take place, the crucial point is that this cycle cannot go on for ever, as is claimed. Calculations for this model show that each universe will transfer an amount of entropy to its successor. In other words, the amount of useful energy available becomes less each time and every “opening” universe will open more slowly and have a larger diameter. This will cause a much smaller universe to form the next time around and so on, eventually petering out into nothing. Even if “open and close” universes can exist, they cannot endure for eternity. At some point it becomes necessary for “something” to be created from “nothing”. Put briefly, the “oscillating” universe model is a hopeless fantasy whose physical reality is impossible.

Quantum Model of Universe:

The “quantum model of universe” is another attempt to purge the Big Bang of its creationist implications. Supporters of this model base it on the observations of quantum (subatomic) physics. In quantum physics, it is to be observed that subatomic particles appear and disappear spontaneously in a vacuum. Interpreting this observation as “matter can originate at quantum level, this is a property pertaining to matter”, some physicists try to explain the origination of matter from non-existence during the creation of the universe as a “property pertaining to matter” and present it as a part of laws of nature. In this model, our universe is interpreted as a subatomic particle in a bigger one.
However this syllogism is definitely out of question and in any case cannot explain how the universe came into being. William Lane Craig, the author of The Big Bang: Theism and Atheism explains why:
A quantum mechanical vacuum spawning material particles is far from the ordinary idea of a “vacuum” (meaning nothing). Rather, a quantum vacuum is a sea of continually forming and dissolving particles, which borrow energy from the vacuum for their brief existence. This is not “nothing,” and hence, material particles do not come into being out of nothing.
So in quantum physics, matter “does not exist when it was not before”. What happens is that ambient energy suddenly becomes matter and just as suddenly disappears becoming energy again. In short, there is no condition of “existence from nothingness” as is claimed. In physics, no less than in other branches of the sciences, there are atheist scientists who do not hesitate to disguise the truth by overlooking critical points and details in their attempt to support the materialist view and achieve their ends. For them, it is much more important to defend materialism and atheism than to reveal scientific facts and realities. In the face of the reality mentioned above, most scientists dismiss the quantum universe model. C. J. Isham explains that “this model is not accepted widely because of the inherent difficulties that it poses.” Even some of the originators of this idea, such as Brout and Spindel, have abandoned it.
A recent and much-publicized version of the quantum universe model was advanced by the physicist Stephen Hawking. In his book A Brief History of Time, Hawking states that the Big Bang doesn’t necessarily mean existence from nothingness. Instead of “no time” before the Big Bang, Hawking proposed the concept of “imaginary time”. According to Hawking, there was only a 10-43 second “imaginary” time interval before the Big Bang took place   and “real” time was formed after that. Hawking’s hope was just to ignore the reality of “timelessness” before the Big Bang by means of this “imaginary” time.  Stephen Hawking also tries to advance different explanations for the Big Bang other than Creation just as other Materialist scientists do by relying upon contradictions and false concepts. As a concept, “imaginary time” is tantamount to zero or non-existence–like the imaginary number of people in a room or the imaginary number of cars on a road. Stephen Hawking also tries to advance different explanations for the Big Bang other than Creation just as other Materialist scientists do by relying upon contradictions and false concepts. Here Hawking is just playing with words. He claims that equations are right when they are related to an imaginary time but in fact this has no meaning. The mathematician Sir Herbert Dingle refers to the possibility of faking imaginary things as real in math as:
In the language of mathematics we can tell lies as well as truths, and within the scope of mathematics itself there is no possible way of telling one from the other. We can distinguish them only by experience or by reasoning outside the mathematics, applied to the possible relation between the mathematical solution and its  physical correlate.
To put it briefly, a mathematically imaginary or theoretical solution need not have a true or a real consequence. Using a property exclusive to mathematics, Hawking produces hypotheses that are unrelated to reality. But what reason could he have for doing this? It’s easy to find the answer to that question in his own words. Hawking admits that he prefers alternative universe models to the Big Bang because the latter “hints at divine creation”, which such models are designed to oppose.
What all this shows is that alternative models to the Big Bang such as ‘Steady-State’, the ‘Open and Close Universe Model’, and ‘Quantum Universe Models’ in fact spring from the philosophical prejudices of materialists. Scientific discoveries have demonstrated the reality of the Big Bang and can even explain “existence from nothingness”. And this is very strong evidence that the universe is created by Allah, a point that materialists utterly reject.
An example of this opposition to the Big Bang is to be found in an essay by John Maddox, the editor of Nature (a materialist magazine), that appeared in 1989. In “Down with the Big Bang”, Maddox declares the Big Bang to be philosophically unacceptable because it helps theologists by providing them with strong support for their ideas. The author also predicted that the Big Bang would be disproved and that support for it would disappear within a decade. Maddox can only have been even more discomforted by the subsequent discoveries during the next ten years that have provided further evidence of the existence of the Big Bang. Some materialists do act with more common sense on this subject. The British Materialist H. P. Lipson accepts the truth of creation, albeit “unpleasantly”, when he says:
If living matter is not, then caused by the interplay of atoms, natural forces, and radiation, how has it come into being?…I think, however, that we must…admit that the only acceptable explanation is creation. I know that this is anathema to physicists, as indeed it is to me, but we must not reject that we do not like if the experimental evidence supports it.
In conclusion, the truth disclosed by science is this: Matter and time have been brought into being by an independent possessor of immense power, by a Creator. Allah, the Possessor of almighty power, knowledge and intelligence, has created the universe we live in.
Allah says: “And it is We Who have constructed the heaven with might, and verily, it is We Who are steadily expanding it”. (Qur’an, 51:47) “Do not the Unbelievers see that the heavens and the earth were joined together (as one unit of Creation) before We clove them asunder? (Big Bang) We made from water every living thing. Will they not then believe?”(Qur’an;21:30), “Moreover He Comprehended in His design the sky and it had been (as) smoke: He said to it and to the earth: “Come ye together willingly or unwillingly. “They said: “We do come (together) in willing obedience.”(Qur’an;41:11);“Who hath created and further given order and proportion”  (Qur’an;87:2).

Random Universe:

A second atheist dogma rendered invalid in the 20th century by discoveries in astronomy is the idea of a ‘Random Universe’. The view that the matter in the universe, the heavenly bodies and the laws that determine the relationships among them has no purpose but is the result of chance, has been dramatically discounted. For the first time since the 1970’s, scientists have begun to recognize the fact that the whole physical balance of the universe is adjusted delicately in favor of human life. With the advance of research, it has been discovered that the physical, chemical and biological laws of the universe, basic forces such as gravity and electro-magnetism, the structure of atoms and elements are all ordered exactly as they have to be for human life. Western scientists have called this extraordinary design the “Anthropic Principle”. That is, every aspect of the universe is designed with a view that makes the existence of intelligent life inevitable.

Anthropic Principle:

The basics of the “Anthropic Principle” may be summarized the as follows:
·       The speed of the first expansion of the universe (the force of the Big Bang explosion) was exactly the velocity that it had to be. According to scientists’ calculations, if the expansion rate had differed from its actual value by more than one part in a billion billion, then the universe would either have recollapsed before it ever reached its present size or else have splattered in every direction in a way never to unite again.To put it another way, even at the first moment of the universe’s existence there was a fine calculation of the accuracy of a billion billionth. If the rate of expansion of universe would have been less or more than the size of a sand particle the universe would have not existed as is now.
·       The four physical forces in the universe (gravitational force, weak nuclear force, strong nuclear force, and electromagnetic force) are all at the necessary levels for an ordered universe to emerge and for life to exist. Even the tiniest variations in these forces (for example, one in 1039, or one in 1028; that is—crudely calculated—one in a billion billion billion billion), the universe would either be composed only of radiation or of no other element besides hydrogen.
·       There are many other delicate adjustments that make the earth ideal for human life: the size of the sun, its distance from the earth, the unique physical and chemical properties of water, the wavelength of the sun’s rays, the way that the earth’s atmosphere contains the gases necessary to allow respiration, or the Earth’s magnetic field being ideally suited to human life.
This delicate balance is one of the most striking discoveries of modern astrophysics. The well known astronomer, Paul Davies, writes in the last paragraph of his book The Cosmic Blueprint, “The impression of Design is overwhelming”. In an article in the journal Nature, the astrophysicist W. Press writes, “There is a grand design in the Universe that favors the development of intelligent life.” The interesting thing about this is that the majority of the scientists that have made these discoveries were of the materialist point of view and came to this conclusion unwillingly. They did not undertake their scientific investigations hoping to find a proof for God’s existence. But most of them, if not all of them, despite their unwillingness, arrived at this conclusion as the only explanation for the extraordinary design of the universe.
In his book, The Symbiotic Universe the American astronomer, George Greenstein, acknowledges this fact: How could this possibly have come to pass [that the laws of physics conform themselves to life]? …As we survey all the evidence, the thought insistently arises that some supernatural agency—or, rather Agency—must be involved. Is it possible that suddenly, without intending to, we have stumbled upon scientific proof of the existence of a Supreme Being? Was it God who stepped in and so providentially crafted the cosmos for our benefit?
By beginning his question with “Is it possible”, Greenstein, an atheist, tries to ignore that plain fact that has confronted him. But many scientists who have approached the question without prejudice acknowledge that the universe has been created especially for human life. Materialism is now being viewed as an erroneous belief outside the realm of science. The American geneticist, Robert Griffiths, acknowledges this fact when he says, “If we need an atheist for a debate, I go to the philosophy department. The physics department isn’t much use.”
In his book Nature’s Destiny: How the Laws of Biology Reveal Purpose in the Universe, which examines how physical, chemical and biological laws are amazingly calculated in an “ideal” way with a view to the requirements of human life, the well-known molecular biologist, Michael Denton writes: The new picture that has emerged in twentieth-century astronomy presents a dramatic challenge to the presumption which has been prevalent within scientific circles during most of the past four centuries: that life is a peripheral and purely contingent phenomenon in the cosmic scheme.
In short, the idea of a ‘Random Universe’, perhaps atheism’s most basic pillar, has been proved invalid. Scientists now openly speak of the collapse of materialism. The supposition whose falsity God reveals in the Qur’an: “We did not create heaven and earth and everything between them to no purpose. That is the opinion of those who disbelieve…” (Qur’an; 38: 27) was shown to be invalid by science in the 1970’s.

Chapter-3: Quantum Entanglement

The God Effect!

Mysteries of Quantum Physics lead to God:

“To God belongs the Mystery of the heavens and the earth. And the Decision of the Hour (of Judgment) is as the twinkling of an eye, or even quicker: for God hath power over all things.” (Qur’an; 16:77).
If two electrons are created together, they are forever entangled, regardless of the distance between the two electrons; a change in quantum spin in one electron will immediately cause the other electron to change spin as well.
The part where you jiggle an electron on one side of the universe and an invisible force traverses millions of light years and smacks another electron into wiggling instantaneously, which is about a million years faster than is technically possible without time travel. In theory, you could separate two electrons by as much space as you wanted (say, the breadth of the universe), and they are still linked in such a way that actions taken on one would affect the other instantaneously. Meaning information is being transmitted at speeds faster than light. Meaning, if you want to really go nuts, time travel. And though the party pooping scientists have been busy coming up with limitations on the kind of information that could be transmitted, no one has yet been able to disprove the theory that there is an invisible force in the universe capable of affecting matter millions of light-years away instantly. So at Big Bang there was a point in the past in which every atom in the universe was condensed into a singularity. Which means everything is quantumly entangled. Some scientists have even gone so far as to claim that quantum entanglement shows that there is no such thing as space, and that everything in the universe is still touching.
Here is an other explanation:  When a photon (photon is a force carrier particle, usually polarized laser light) passes through matter, it will be absorbed by an electron. Eventually, and spontaneously, the electron will return to its ground state by emitting the photon. Certain crystal structures increase the likelihood that the photon will split into two photons, both of them with longer wavelengths than the original. Keep in mind that a longer wavelength means a lower frequency, and thus less energy. The total energy of the two photons must equal the energy of the photon originally fired from the laser (conservation of energy). When the original photon splits into two photons, the resulting photon pair is considered entangled.
The process of using certain crystals to split incoming photons into pairs of photons is called parametric down-conversion.  Normally the photons exit the crystal such that one is aligned in a horizontally polarized light cone, the other aligned vertically. By adjusting the experiment, the horizontal and vertical light cones can be made to overlap. Even though the polarization of the individual photons is unknown, the nature of quantum mechanics predicts they differ.  To illustrate, if an entangled photon meets a vertical polarizing filter, the photon may or may not pass through. If it does, then its entangled partner will not because the instant that the first photon’s polarization is known, the second photon’s polarization will be the exact opposite. It is this instant communication between the entangled photons to indicate each other’s polarization that lies at the heart of quantum entanglement. This is the “spooky action at a distance” that Einstein believed was theoretically implausible.
Quantum events obey the laws of quantum theory, which governs the behaviour of minute objects like atoms and subatomic particles, including photons of light. By contrast with the laws of ”classical” physics (which apply to the relatively large objects of the everyday world), quantum physics often exhibits behaviour that seems impossible. The connections that persist between distant but entangled particles are ”one of the deep mysteries of quantum mechanics. ‘These connections are a fact of nature proven by experiments, but to try to explain them philosophically is very difficult. Albert Einstein sneered at the very possibility of such a thing, calling it ”spooky action at a distance.” Scientists still (somewhat shamefacedly) speak of the ”magic” of ”quantum weirdness.” And yet all experiments in recent years have shown that Einstein was wrong and that action at a distance is real.
In the early 1930s, Einstein had problems with the whole of quantum physics, which is ironic given that it was partially based on his Nobel Prize winning paper on the photoelectric effect. What he didn’t like was the way quantum particles don’t have fixed values for their properties until they are observed. Why? Einstein couldn’t relate to a universe where probability ruled! That’s why he famously said that “Der Herrgott würfelt nicht!” or “The Lord doesn’t play dice!” Einstein believed that underneath these mathematical probabilities were fixed hidden realities that we just couldn’t see. That was why he, Podolsky and Rosen dreamed up the idea of what we now call “Quantum Entanglement” in 1935. It was to show that either quantum theory was incomplete, because it said there was no hidden information, or it was possible to instantly influence something at a distance. As that seemed incredible, he thought it showed that quantum theory was incorrect the way it had been presented with probabilistic mathematics. Quantum entanglement is at the heart of the Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) Paradox developed in 1935.
It did take a long time to prove that Quantum Entanglement truly existed. It wasn’t until the 1980s that it was clearly demonstrated. But it has been shown without doubt that this is the case.  In 1982, at the university of Paris, a research team led by physicist Alain Aspect performed what may turn out to be one of the most important experiments of the 20th century. Aspect and his team discovered that:  under certain circumstances subatomic particles such as electrons are able to instantaneously communicate with each other regardless of the distance separating them.  The problem with this discovery is that it violates Einstein’s long-held tenet that no communication can travel faster than the speed of light.
In 1935 a famous paper by Albert Einstein, Boris Podolsky and Nathan Rosen challenged the quantum theory prediction that entangled particles could remain instantly in touch with each other. One of their objections was based on the speed limit imposed by Einstein’s Special Theory of Relativity: nothing can travel faster than the speed of light. Einstein and his colleagues preferred a more intuitive explanation of the simultaneous correlation between entangled particles, based on the idea that the match between them is ordained by their identical antecedents. The behaviour of each particle, they argued, is the product of hidden ”local” factors, not by spooky long-distance effects. But again and again in recent years, increasingly sensitive experiments have decisively proved that Einstein’s explanation was wrong and quantum theory is correct.
Since the 1970’s, physicists have been testing a prediction of quantum theory that ”entangled” particles continue to communicate with each other instantaneously even when very far apart.  Entangled particles are identical entities that share common origins and properties, and remain in instantaneous touch with each other, no matter how wide the gap between them. Past experiments on entangled particles were carried out over distances of 100 yards or less. By showing that the link between two entangled particles survives even when they are seven miles apart, Dr. Gisin set a dramatic distance record.
The twin-photon experiment by Dr. Nicolas Gisin of the University of Geneva and his colleagues in June 1997 was the most spectacular demonstration yet of the mysterious long-range connections that exist between quanta events, connections created from nothing at all, which in theory can reach instantaneously from one end of the universe to the other.
In essence, Dr. Gisin sent pairs of photons in opposite directions to villages north and south of Geneva along optical fibers of the kind used to transmit telephone calls. Reaching the ends of these fibers, the two photons were forced to make random choices between alternative, equally possible pathways. Since there was no way for the photons to communicate with each other, ”classical” physics would predict that their independent choices would bear no relationship to each other. But when the paths of the two photons were properly adjusted and the results compared, the independent decisions by the paired photons always matched, even though there was no physical way for them to communicate with each other. In principle, it should make no difference whether the correlation between twin particles occurs when they are separated by a few meters or by the entire universe. This research is interesting not only from a scientific and philosophical point of view, but because of a very practical consequence: possible completely secure code could be created.

The Measurement or Observation:

Effects on Behavior of Entangled Particles:
One of the weird aspects of quantum mechanics is that something can simultaneously exist and not exist; if a particle is capable of moving along several different paths, or existing in several different states, the ‘Uncertainty Principle of Quantum Mechanics’ allows it to travel along all paths and exist in all possible states simultaneously. However, if the particle happens to be measured by some means, [observation or instrumental measurement] its path or state is no longer uncertain. The simple act of measurement instantly forces it into just one path or state.  Physicists call this a ”collapse of the wave function.”
The amazing thing is that if just one particle in an entangled pair is measured, the wave function of both particles collapses into a definite state that is the same for both partners, even separated by great distances. The ‘double slit’ and ‘single slit’ experiments of electrons behaving as wave and particle respectively but once electron is observed it knows being observed and behaves as single shot electron not as wave. This is strange phenomena. The particle knows when it is being watched and when it was not. This shows the simple means of intelligence by reacting to visual stimuli. In the STI [Self thinking Interface] Device created by Physicst Roger R.Vogelsan in the early 70’ proved that there is ultimate knowledge in the FORCE which connects to all freed electrons. This FORCE knows everything its Omniscient.
Among several proposed explanations of all this is the ”many worlds” hypothesis: the notion that for every possible pathway or state open to a particle, there is a separate universe. For each of 10 possible pathways a quantum particle might follow, for example, there would exist a separate universe.
Since the 1970’s, Dr. John F. Clauser of the University of California at Berkeley, Dr. Alain Aspect at the Institute des Optics in Orsay, France, and others have been experimenting with pairs of entangled particles. One way to create a pair of entangled twins is to start with a single photon of ultraviolet radiation and pass it through a peculiar artificial mineral called a ”down-conversion crystal.” In the Swiss experiment, the crystal consisted of potassium niobate. The crystal splits the photon in two, producing two new photons that continue on in somewhat different directions, and whose combined energy equals the energy of their parent photon. The special quality of such pairs, as shown both by theory and experiment, is that they are entangled quantum mechanically. This means that if the polarization or energy or timing of one of the particles is measured, its indefinite state is destroyed and it falls into a definite state. The astonishing consequence of this is that the particle’s distant twin experiences exactly the same metamorphosis at the same moment, even though there is no physical link or signal between the two twins.
In Dr. Gisin’s experiment, as in earlier ones, no signal of any kind was transmitted between the photons, but despite this, one of the photons ”knew” what happened to its distant twin, and mimicked the twin’s response. This response took less than one ten-thousandth of the time a light beam would have needed to carry the news from one photon to the other at a speed of 186,282 miles per second. (In fact, the correlation between the two particles was presumably instantaneous. The Swiss experiment merely set an upper limit on the time required for the response as about three ten-billionths of a second.).  Dr. Gisin’s experiment made use of a system of paired interferometers developed by Dr. James D. Franson of Johns Hopkins University, who is also a leading investigator of quantum effects.
”You start with an ultraviolet photon and split it into two photons. One goes one way and the other goes another way, both to identical interferometers. Entering its own interferometer, each photon must make a random decision as to whether it will travel a long pathway through the device or a short one. Then you look for a correlation between the pathways taken by the photons in their respective interferometers.” If the timing between the photons is exactly adjusted, each twin seems to know what the other is doing and matches its choice of pathway to coincide with that of its distant partner. Dr. Franson said of the correlation demonstrated over a seven-mile course by the Swiss experiment, ”It’s pretty amazing.”

Faster than Speed of Light:

It is assumed that the numerical correlation between two particles different from information. Quantum theory is confirmed by experiments, and so is relativity theory, which prevents us from sending messages faster than light. It is unknown that there’s any intuitive explanation of what that means.

Tunneling:

Another deep quantum mystery for which physicists have no answer has to do with ”tunneling” — the bizarre ability of particles to sometimes penetrate impenetrable barriers. This effect is not only well demonstrated; it is the basis of tunnel diodes and similar devices vital to modern electronic systems. Tunnelling is based on the fact that quantum theory is statistical in nature and deals with probabilities rather than specific predictions; there is no way to know in advance when a single radioactive atom will decay, for example. The probabilistic nature of quantum events means that if a stream of particles encounters an obstacle, most of the particles will be stopped in their tracks but a few, conveyed by probability alone, will magically appear on the other side of the barrier. The process is called ”tunnelling,” although the word in itself explains nothing. Dr. Chiao’s group at Berkeley, Dr. Aephraim M. Steinberg at the University of Toronto and others are investigating the strange properties of tunnelling, which was one of the subjects explored by scientists attending the Nobel Symposium on quantum physics in Sweden. ”We find,” Dr. Chiao said, ”that a barrier placed in the path of a tunnelling particle does not slow it down. In fact, we detect particles on the other side of the barrier that have made the trip in less time than it would take the particle to traverse an equal distance without a barrier — in other words, the tunnelling speed apparently greatly exceeds the speed of light. Moreover, if you increase the thickness of the barrier the tunneling speed increases, as high as you please. ”This is another great mystery of quantum mechanics.” Most physicists and engineers set aside the contemplation of quantum mysteries and are content to exploit the innumerable applications quantum physics has found in technology, including lasers, solid-state electronics and much more. But the sense of mystery has never been entirely suppressed.

The Cosmic Code:

The late Rockefeller Universityphysicist Heinz Pagels, like many other theorists, believed that quantum physics is a kind of code that interconnects everything in the universe, including the physical basis of life itself. In his book ”The Cosmic Code,” Dr. Pagels, an ardent mountain climber, wrote:
”I often dream about falling. Such dreams are commonplace to the ambitious or those who climb mountains. Lately I dreamed I was clutching at the face of a rock, but it would not hold. Gravel gave way. I grasped for a shrub, but it pulled loose, and in cold terror I fell into the abyss. Suddenly I realized that my fall was relative; there was no bottom and no end. A feeling of pleasure overcame me. I realized that what I embody, the principle of life, cannot be destroyed. It is written into the cosmic code, the order of the universe. As I continued to fall in the dark void, embraced by the vault of the heavens, I sang to the beauty of the stars and made my peace with the darkness.” Dr. Pagels was killed in a climbing accident in 1988.
Quantum Entanglement or the God Effect!
One of the main scientific goals of the world’s largest atom smasher, costing some 9 billion dollars, is to prove the existence of the Higgs boson or God particle, which makes the universe possible by giving mass to everything including all of us and the objects we can touch! Quantum Entanglement (QE) or the God Effect is the working mechanism of the Higgs boson or the God particle, because it’s so fundamental.  Quantum Entanglement is at the heart of understanding how significant events across the universe operate at the macro- and micro- level in split-second synchronicity despite considerable distance between them. Quantum Entanglement suggests that information is exchanged faster between Quantum Entangled particles than the speed of light, which was deemed impossible per Einstein’s special theory of relativity proposed in 1905.

Quantum Entanglement: Applications

A ‘Type’ of “The God Connection”!
When God created the universe and the laws of physics, did He leave a ‘connection’ with all particles and forces within it?  It seems there are themes and ‘designs’ in science that seem to repeat and recur in nature. Scientists and theologians have long wondered about the ‘dualism’ in particles and forces in the universe, nature, and morality. For example, matter and antimatter, positive and negative charges, male, female, good and evil, etc. When atomic theory became the dominate theory of matter around the turn of the last century, the model of Neils Bohr, of hard round particles orbiting the atomic nucleus, was compared to the planetary system of our sun. The same theme is recurrent in galactic structure and the orbits of stars, star clusters, and gasses. It seemed that a basic structure was promulgated from the very smallest objects to the very largest.
We have since seen that the atom is much more complicated and that the objects orbiting the nucleus are not ‘hard’ and definite, but are both particle and wave in their structure. The nucleus itself is very complex and the once hard objects that we call neutrons, and protons are actually made up of ‘quarks’ and other nebulous subatomic particles.
 In religion we have a belief that in order to communicate with God, a person enters into a state of consciousness that we call prayer. Through prayer, a spiritual connection is made to God and He hears our thoughts and we receive assurance that He acknowledges our wishes. Is there a similar “type” in the physical world for that connection? “It was We who created man and We know what dark suggestions his soul makes to him: for We are nearer to him than (his) jugular vein.”(Qur’an;50:16)
 The idea in quantum entanglement is that every particle in a particle-antiparticle pair is in instant communication with the other particle, regardless of how far apart they are. It is a phenomenon that was experimentally proven, just recently, by scientists in Geneva Switzerland, in 2008. In this experiment a single particle – antiparticle pair was sent streaming away from the source in opposite directions, and they were detected when they were about 20 miles away from each other. The ‘entanglement’  phenomenon was proven when a ‘detection’ of one particle instantly produced an identical change in the other particle. This ‘instantaneous’ transmission of information defies Einstein’s theory of relativity and the speed of light. A calculation was made that determined that the speed of this experiment was at least 10,000 times the speed of light and perhaps was instantaneous.
The size of the particles of this discussion are at the subatomic level, far below ‘microscope’ level. Some scientists think that at this level, there is a universal ‘connection’ that transcends space/time and allows  all particles to be ‘in contact’ with every other particle in the universe in a way that we have yet to understand. Below the ‘quantum’ or Planck level, the definitions of space and time become obscure and tend to blur.  If all particles are somehow connected below the Planck level, it would seem to say that we all have a universal connection to each other and perhaps that is the medium through which prayer is channelled? That much is pure speculation, but if God created all the physical laws and the universe in such a way that He is never out of touch both  spiritually and physically, and is omnipresent everywhere at once, it confirms what Christians, Jews & Muslims have always said about His presence and the ease with which we are in touch with Him. It means that He knows every thought, every event, and everything that happens in the universe. It also says that no matter how far you travel, or how much you transgress His will, He is always near.
Application in Highly Secure Communications:
There are some real and amazing applications of Quantum Entanglement in our world. It can be used to produce unbreakable encryption. If we send each half of a set of entangled pairs to either end of a communications link, then the randomly generated but linked properties can be used as a key to encrypt information. If anyone intercepts the information it will break the entanglement, and the communication can be stopped before the eavesdropper picks up any data.  Teleportation, Star Trek style is an other aspect being explored.
Quantum Pseudo-Telepathy: Telepathy is the transmission of information from one person to another without using any of our known sensory channels or physical interaction, it is experienced between individuals, love one’s at far off distances. The phenomenon of quantum pseudo-telepathy is mostly used as a powerful and explicit thought experiment of the non-local characteristics of quantum mechanics. Yet, the effect is real and subject to experimental verification, as demonstrated by the experimental confirmation of the violation of the Bell inequalities. The 2nd Caliph Omar is reported to have communicated with the commander of Islamic Army in battlefield hundreds of miles away. May be entanglement phenomena have some thing to explain.

Chapter- 4: Holographic Universe

Since traveling faster than the speed of light is tantamount to breaking the time barrier, this daunting prospect has caused some physicists to try to come up with elaborate ways to explain away Alain Aspect’s findings.  It has also inspired others to offer even more radical explanations including that of the holographic universe!  The implications of a holographic universe are truly mind boggling… Aspect’s findings imply that objective reality does not exist, that despite its apparent solidity the universe is at heart a phantasm, a gigantic and splendidly detailed hologram. To understand why a number of physicists including David Bohm made this startling assertion, one must first understand a little about holograms.

Hologram:

A hologram is a three-dimensional photograph made with the aid of a laser.  To make a hologram, the object to be photographed is first bathed in the light of a laser beam. Then a second laser beam is bounced off the reflected light of the first and the resulting interference pattern — the area where the two laser beams superimpose — is captured on film. When the film is developed, it looks like a meaningless swirl of light and dark lines. But as soon as the developed film is illuminated by another laser beam, a three-dimensional image of the original object appears! The three-dimensionality of such images is not the only remarkable characteristic of holograms. If a hologram of a rose is cut in half and then illuminated by a laser, each half is still found to contain the entire image of the rose. Indeed, even if the halves are divided again, each snippet of film is always found to contain a smaller but intact version of the original image. Unlike normal photographs, every part of a hologram contains all the information possessed by the whole! The “whole in every part” nature of a hologram provides us with an entirely new way of understanding organization and order. For most of its history, Western science has laboured under the bias that the best way to understand a physical phenomenon, whether a frog or an atom, is to dissect it and study its respective parts. A hologram teaches us that some things in the universe may not lend themselves to this approach. If we try to take apart some thing constructed holographically, we will not get the pieces of which it is made, we will only get smaller wholes.
Extensions of the Same Source: This insight suggested to some scientists including David Bohm another way of understanding Aspect’s discovery. Bohm believed the reason subatomic particles are able to remain in contact with one another regardless of the distance separating them is not because they are sending some sort of mysterious signal back and forth, but because their separateness is an illusion.  Bohm suggested that at some deeper level of reality such particles are not individual entities, but are actually extensions of the same fundamental something!

Beyond Cause and Effect:

Quantum Entanglement seems to throw out the whole notion of cause and effect, as we know it! It is possible for a particle to interact with another particle in such a way that the quantum states of the two particles form a single entangled state. The definition of an entangled state is that it is not entirely independent of the other’s state. Its state is dependent on another’s state in some way. Given this dependency, it is a mistake to consider either state in isolation from the other. Rather we should combine the states and treat the result as a single, entangled state.

Space and Time:

When pairs of particles are generated by the decay of other particles, naturally or through induced collision such as at CERN or Fermi Labs, these pairs may be termed “entangled”, in that such pairs often necessarily have linked and opposite qualities, ie of spin or charge. The assumption that measurement in effect “creates” the state of the measured quality goes back to the arguments of, among others: Schrödinger and Einstein, Podolsky and Rosen concerning Heisenberg’s uncertainty principle and its relation to observation. Quantum Entanglement does underline the fact that quantum particles really do only have a range of probabilities on the values of their properties rather than fixed values. And while it seems to contradict Einstein’s theory of special relativity, which says nothing can travel faster than light, it’s increasingly likely that entanglement challenges our ideas of what space and time really mean!


Chapter-5: Attributes of God & Science

The Attributes, Words and Signs and Mercies of Allah are manifest in His Creations, and can never be fully set out in human language, however extended human means may imagined to be. However all that is mentioned about Allah’s attributes, whether briefly or in detail and affirmatively or negatively, based on Qur’an, and the traditions of Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) are final some are also mentioned in Bible. Allah has most perfect attributes;  Allah can be called by any name, signifying the attributes of perfection, suitable to Him. Traditionally in Islamic traditions 99 Names are attributed to Allah, some are also mentioned in Bible. Some Islamic attributes of God are: The Creator (Al-Khaliq), The Master, The Lord of Universe (Rab-ul-Ala’min),), The Owner of All Sovereignty (Malik-al-Mulk), The Timeless (As-Sabur), The One, The Unique, Manifestation of Unity (Al-Wahid), The All Knowing, The Omniscient (Al-`Alim), The All Seeing (Al-Basir), The All Aware (Al-Khabir), The King, The Sovereign (Al-Malik), The Almighty, The Self Sufficient (Al-Aziz), The Powerful, The Rightful (Al-Bari’), The Fashioner of Forms (Al-Musawwir), The Majestic (Al-Jalil), The Answerer (Al-Mujib), The Strong (Al-Qawaie), The Producer, Originator, and Initiator of All (Al-Mubdi, Al Badi’), The Magnificent (Al-Majid), The One, the All Inclusive, The Indivisible (Al-Ahad), The Self Sufficient, The Everlasting (As-Samad), The All Beneficent (Ar-Rahman), The Most Merciful (Ar-Rahim), The Lord of Majesty and Generosity (Dhu-al-Jalali wa-al-Ikram), The Incomparable, The Originator (Al-Badi). Some of His attributes are explained briefly:-

The Creator:

He is the Supreme Creator:” He is the Originator of the heavens and the earth.(Qur’an;6:101). Allah has no equal because His Attributes are perfect: “There is nothing whatsoever like unto Him. He is the All-hearing, the All-seeing” (Qur’an;42:11); “no slumber or sleep seizes Him” (Qur’an;2:255), because His life is perfect and eternal. Bible also mentions: “Have you not known? Have you not heard? The LORD is the everlasting God, the Creator of the ends of the earth. He does not faint or grow weary, his understanding is Unsearchable.”(Isaiah;40:28).

Uncreated:

Allah knows, but not as human knows; He has power, but not as human have power. He is a thing, but unlike other things; by saying “thing,” it is intended merely to affirm His reality. He has neither body nor substance, neither accidental property nor limit, neither opposite nor like nor similitude. A human being require some material to make some thing i.e. a carpenter requires wood, nails tools and other material to make a table.  God Most High creates things out of nothing and He has knowledge of them in pre-eternity, before their creation.

The Lord:

Cherisher & Sustainer (Lord) of All the Worlds:
 Allah is The Sustainer’ (Rabb) of all the worlds. “Praise be to Allah the Cherisher and Sustainer (Rabb al- a’lamen) of the Worlds”(Qur’an;1:2); “Then praise be to Allah, Lord of the heavens and Lords of the earth, the Lord of the Worlds.”(Qur’an;45:36); “Cast thy burden upon the LORD, and he shall sustain thee: he shall never suffer the righteous to be moved.”(Psalms;55:22).

Omnipotent, the Wise:

He is Omnipotent: “He is the Supreme Authority over His servants; and He is the Wise, the Aware.”(Qur’an;6:18). Allah is not living with His creatures on earth, but He is closer to human than their  jugular vein: “It was We who created man and We know what dark suggestions his soul makes to him: for We are nearer to him than (his) jugular vein.”(Qur’an;50:16). It implies that Allah knows more truly the innermost state of human feeling and consciousness than does their own self; “Hast thou not seen that Allah knows all that is in the heavens and all that is in the earth? There is no secret conference of three but He is their fourth, nor of five but He is their sixth, nor of less than that or more but He is with them Wheresoever they may be;…”(Qur’an;58:7); “Whither shall I go from thy spirit? or whither shall I flee from thy presence?”(Psalms;139:7).

Omniscient:

Allah possess absolute & infinite knowledge: “He Alone has the keys of the unseen treasures, of which no one knows except Him. He knows whatever is in the land and in the sea; there is not a single leaf that falls without His knowledge, there is neither a grain in the darkness of the earth nor anything fresh or dry which has not been recorded in a Clear Book.”(Qur’an;6:59); “Allah alone has the knowledge of the Hour, sends down rain, and knows what is in the wombs (a blessing or a curse). No soul knows what it shall earn tomorrow, and no soul knows in what land it shall die. Surely, Allah is All-knowing, All-aware” (Qur’an;31:34). The Qur’an points to the rich sources of knowledge in the whole universe. “..The knowledge thereof is with my Lord in a Record. My Lord never errs nor forgets”(Qur’an;20:52); “ For a man’s ways are before the eyes of the LORD, and he watches all his paths.”(Proverbs;5:21).

The First and the Last:

The Evident and The Immanent: According to Qur’an: “He is the First and the Last the Evident and the Immanent: and He has full knowledge of all things. “(Qur’an;57:3); “They shall perish, but thou shalt endure: yea, all of them shall wax old like a garment; as a vesture shalt thou change them, and they shall be changed: But thou art the same, and thy years shall have no end.”(Psalms;102:26-27). God is Evident in so far as there is ample evidence of His existence and providence all around the universe. On the other hand, God is Hidden in so far as human intellect cannot grasp His essence nor can He be seen in the present world. “I am the Alpha and the Omega,” says the Lord God, who is and who was and who is to come, the Almighty.”(RSV;Revelation;1:8). The Bible also mentions, God as Invisible (Job;23:8-9) and Un-searchable (Job;11:7; 37:23;Psalms; 145:3; Isaiah; 40:28).

God is Not Similar to His Creatures:

“There is none like unto Him”(Qur’an;112:4); “..there is none like me in all the earth.”(Exodus;9:14).

The Merciful:

The Mercy of Allah is the one of the grandest themes of the Qur’an. To contemplate these boundless gifts of God. “When those who believe in Our revelations come to you, say: “Peace be upon you. Your Lord has decreed mercy upon Himself. If anyone among you commits evil because of ignorance and thereafter repents and mends his ways; you will find Allah Forgiving, Merciful.”(Qur’an;6:54& 85:14). God’s attribute of Mercy is also highlighted in Bible at Exodus;34:6-7 and many other places: “The earth, O LORD, is full of thy mercy: teach me thy statutes.”(Psalms;119:64); “Therefore turn thou to thy God: keep mercy and judgment, and wait on thy God continually.”(Hosea;12:6); “For a small moment have I forsaken thee; but with great mercies will I gather thee.”(Isaiah;54:7); “But God, who is rich in mercy, for his great love wherewith he loved us,”(Ephesians;2:4).  

Justice:

He helps all with justices and fairness: “The fact is that Allah is your Protector and He is the best of all helpers.”(Qur’an;3:150); “Rest assured that Allah does not wrong anyone even by an atom’s weight. If someone does a good deed He increases it many fold and also gives an extra great reward on His own.”(Qur’an;4:40). He is Sustainer of humanity whether believers or non believers and all other creatures:  “We bestowed on all – these as well those – out of the bounties of your Lord; the bounties of your Sustainer are not confined.”(Qur’an;17:20). He answers the prayers: “Call on Me; I will answer your (Prayer)…!”(Qur’an;40.60). It is mentioned in Bible: “Touching the Almighty, we cannot find him out: he is excellent in power, and in judgment, and in plenty of justice: he will not afflict.”(Job;37:23). On the Day of Judgment He will judge among His people. He is the Doer of what He wills. True knowledge based on clear proof and indisputable evidence acquired by experience or experiment or by both.

He Does What He Wills:

To Him belongs the Kingdom of the Heavens and the Earth, He does what ever He Wills:“ Whenever He intends a thing, He needs only to say: “Be,” and it is.”(Qur’an;36:82); “There is nothing whatever like unto Him, He is the All-hearing, the All-seeing. To Him belongs the keys of the Heavens and the Earth. He enlarges and restricts provisions to whom He wills. Surely He has knowledge of everything” (Qur’an;42:11-12); “He creates what He pleases. He gives, to whom He wills, females, and He gives, to whom He wills, males, or He couples them, males and females; and He makes whom He wills barren. Surely, He is the Knowing, the Powerful”(Qur’an;42:49-50). Despite being All Powerful, God does not wrong the mankind: “Lo! Allah wrongs not mankind in aught; but mankind wrong themselves.” (Qur’an;10:44).

Subtle, Unfathomable, The All Aware:

Allah is Latif,  fine, subtle, so fine and subtle as to be invisible to the physical eye; so fine as to be imperceptible to the senses; figuratively, so pure as to be above the mental or spiritual vision of ordinary men but at the same time He is aware of all things. It is beyond the capability of human eye to see God In this world, Allah says: “Vision cannot perceive Him, but He perceives all vision. He is the Subtle, (Latif, Incomprehensible), the All-aware” (Qur’an;6:103). Bible also confirms that God can not bee seen (John;1:18, 1Timothy;6:16, Exodus;33:20). God Most High will be seen in the Hereafter, visible to the believers in Paradise with their corporeal vision as mentioned in Qur’an: “Upon that day (Day of Judgment) some faces shall be radiant, gazing upon their Lord”(Qur’an;75:22-23). “Behold, I go forward, but he is not there; and backward, but I cannot perceive him; on the left hand I seek him, but I cannot behold him; I turn to the right hand, but I cannot see him.”(Job;23:8-9).
Belief in God, His names, and His attributes instils in the individual the love and glorification of God that result in obeying God’s instructions and avoiding His prohibitions. These are the means of achieving ultimate happiness in this life and the hereafter for both the individual and the society: “Whoever, male or female, does righteous deed, while believing, We shall assuredly grant him a goodly life, and We shall reward them according to the best of their deeds” (Qur’an;16:97).


Chapter-6: Scientific Proofs of God

Through Four Common Attributes:

While keeping metaphysics and spirituality aside, the four primary physical attributes are being considered here that may help to describe God to any believer or disbeliever in scientific terms: 1)Eternal, independent of time, 2)Omnipresent, found everywhere, 3)Omnipotent, all powerful and 4)Omniscient, all knowing. If these primary attributes are found in one Power and are proved scientifically then that power is God.

Eternal:

Heisenberg came to the conclusion that quantum events cannot be predicted. All freed electrons behave as if they are being influenced by an outside variable or force, Uncertainty Principle. In Signal Travels Farther & Faster than light by Malcolm W.Browne, a force was found connecting two freed electrons and proved to be Eternal, was present within our time yet was not involved with the flow of our time. This Eternal force connects to all freed electrons. Every particle that releases energy connects to this Eternal force.

Omnipresent:

 Everything beyond our solar system that is visible is made of stars, which all release freed electrons, light, radiation etc. This shows that this force to also be Omnipresent everywhere in the universe.

Omnipotent:

In experiments by Russian scientists they found at that laser photons knew when a DNA molecule was added in to the vacuum.  [http://quantumbalancing.com/news/russian_dna.htm]
The photons/electrons collected around the DNA stand and began to change the order of the DNA, changing it to what is desired. After the DNA was removed and the laser turned off the excess photons remained in the position resembling the DNA for over 22 minutes. This simply proves that this force to be Omnipotent, all powerful. It is common observation that we see everything to be so complex, complex environments, complex galaxies and the complexity of nature and life itself. If this force created everything from nothing, we know that energy cannot be created, shows this force to be Omnipotent. Visual evidence is seen in the distance of stars and galaxies across the universe.
According to the first law of thermodynamics energy cannot be created or destroyed. Then where did all the energy in this universe come from? Does it have something to do with this same force being timeless? The force was able to use freed electrons to manipulate DNA, showing what this force can do on a tiny scale. What can this force do to freed electrons on a large scale? Is the universe expanding form dark matter or this Eternal Force?
Since the universe is full of freed electrons, one can only imagine what this force could do if it used to work as one single entity. Possibly how the whole universe was created in six eons.
This data implies that all freed electrons in combination or as a collective to be: Omnipotent, all powerful. This is self evident from the size and distance of galaxies that can be seen across this universe.

Omniscient:

In the Double Slit experiment mentioned earlier, light a freed electron showed that it was observant of its surroundings. It knew when it was being watched and knew when it was not. It showed simple means of intelligence by reacting to visual stimuli. The first bit of evidence that showed this force to be, Omniscient. In the STI [Self thinking Interface] Device created by Physicst Roger R.Vogelsan in the early 70’ proved that there is ultimate knowledge in the FORCE which connects to all freed electrons. This FORCE knows everything its Omniscient.
Hence science proves that God is real and His existence is scientifically proved, let’s look at the summary:
1)    God is Eternal: The twin-photon experiment by Dr.Nicholas Gisin verified by later experiments found photons, freed electrons to be connected to this Force. Nothing can go faster that light except this one Force.
2)    God is Omnipresent: This force connects to all freed electrons in our universe. Freed electrons are created when matter is converted in to energy. This force is everywhere even beyond our universe. This force is found to be everywhere in our universe’s past, present & future which we call time as time does not exist to this force.
3)    God is Omnipotent: All powerful. We observe galaxies at the furthest reaches of the universe. Not hot gas which first theorised but old galaxies. How can the light now be reaching us and show old galaxies at the furthest extents of the universe? If light has a speed limit, then how did distant galaxies form long before the universe was said to have begun? This force again shows that it is Omnipotent and Timeless.
4)    God is Omniscient: All knowing. Physicst Roger R.Vogelsang found with his STI Device that not only could this force read thoughts and knew all things in the past and future but have knowledge of every thing past, present and future.
God is Eternal, Omnipresent, Omnipotent and Omniscient, science proves it!


Chapter-7: God, Science & Universe

Scientific Facts in Qur’an on Universe
History records many miracles performed through Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) but Allah in His Divine wisdom provided Qur’an, the ever living sign (miracle) through Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him), which any one can read by himself, to discover that Qur’an is the true word of Allah, the last book of guidance, light and wisdom for the humanity till eternity. Islam encourages reasoning, discussions and dialogue. The Qur’an provides reason and rationale for the purpose, creation and existence of universe. It is the living sign of God and truthfulness of His last messenger, Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him). Allah says: “O mankind! Verily there hath come to you a convincing proof (Qur’an) from your Lord: for We have sent unto you a light (that is) manifest. Then those who believe in Allah and hold fast to Him soon will He admit them to Mercy and Grace from Him and guide them to Himself by a straight Way.”(Qur’an;4:174-175). The Qur’an contains more than six thousand ayaats (‘Signs’), each verse (ayah), of Qur’an is a sign from the Lord, which speaks of the greatness of its originator. It is a historical fact that Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) was ‘Ummi’ i.e. unlettered (illiterate) (Qur’an;7:157). Revelation of Qur’an in Arabic, unmatched in its eloquence and beauty, through the mouth of un-learned (Isaiah;29:12) prophet is miraculous. The prophesy of Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) and Qur’an (word of God, i.e. ‘words in his mouth’) is mentioned in Bible at Deuteronomy; 18:18,19. The universal challenge of Qur’an to produce even one ayah (verse) like Qur’an (Qur’an;2:23) is yet to be answered. This is the only scripture in the world which is available to the humanity in its original revealed form and will continue to be as such because Allah has taken responsibility to guard it (Qur’an;15:9) . It is the only scripture which is memorized by thousands of Muslims of all ages, nationalities, categories and professions (doctors, engineers, scientists, clerics and common people) the world over from last fourteen centuries, hence is transferred from generation to generation accurately. It is the most recited book in the world.
Qur’an is not a book of ‘science, but a book of ‘signs’ (ayaats), there are more than thousand verses of Qur’an referring to various subjects of science, such as astronomy, physics, geography, geology, oceanology, biology, botany, zoology, medicine, physiology, embryology as well as general science, mostly un known to humanity at the time of its revelation, fourteen centuries ago. Some verses related with universe are mentioned here:
“Soon shall We show them Our signs in the universeand in their own selves, until it becomes clear to them that this Qur’an is indeed the truth. Is it not enough that your Lord is a witness over everything?”(Qur’an;41:53)
“Do not the Unbelievers see that the heavens and the earth were joined together (as one unit of Creation) before We clove them asunder? (Big Bang) We made from water every living thing. Will they not then believe?”(Qur’an;21:30)
“Moreover He Comprehended in His design the sky and it had been (as) smoke: He said to it and to the earth: “Come ye together willingly or unwillingly. “They said: “We do come (together) in willing obedience.”(Qur’an;41:11)
“Who hath created and further given order and proportion” (Qur’an;87:2).
“And it is We Who have constructed the heaven with might, and verily, it is We Who are steadily expanding it”. (Qur’an, 51:47)
“That Day We will fold up heaven like folding up the pages of a book. As We originated the first creation so We will regenerate it. It is a promise binding on Us. That is what We will do.” (Qur’an, 21:104)
“They do not measure Allah with His true measure. The whole earth will be a mere handful for Him on the Day of Rising the heavens folded up in His right hand. Glory be to Him! He is exalted above the partners they ascribe!” (Qur’an, 39:67)
“He Who created the seven heavens in layers. You will not find any discrepancy in the creation of the All-Merciful. Look again-do you see any gaps? Then look again and again. Your sight will return to you dazzled and exhausted!” (Qur’an, 67:3-4)
“Do you not see how He created seven heavens in layers, and placed the moon as a light in them and made the sun a blazing lamp?” (Qur’an, 71:15-16)
“No! I swear by the planets-that recede, that ride their course [and] hide themselves.” (Qur’an, 81: 15-16)
“Your Lord is Allah, Who created the heavens and the earth in six eons and then settled Himself firmly on the Throne…” (Qur’an, 7:54). When a six-eons period of time is calculated according to the relativity of time, it equates to six trillion days. That is because universal time flows a million million times faster than time on Earth. Calculated in terms of years, 6 trillion days equates to approximately 16.427 billion years. This is within the estimated range for the age of the universe.
Black Holes: “And I swear by the stars’ positions-and that is a mighty oath if you only knew”. (Qur’an, 56:75-76), “When the stars are extinguished”, (Qur’an, 77:8), “[I swear] by Heaven and the Tariq! And what will convey to you what the Tariq is? The Star Piercing [the darkness]!” (Qur’an, 86:1-3)
The Skies with ‘Woven’ Orbits: “By heaven furnished with paths;” (Quran; 51:7)
“Allah is He Who raised up the heavens without any support – you can see that – and then established Himself firmly on the Throne. He made the Sun and Moon subservient, each running for a specified term. He directs the whole affair. He makes the Signs clear so that hopefully you will be certain about the meeting with your Lord”. (Quran; 13:2)
A Red Rose in The Sky: The Rosette Nebula: When the Heaven shall be cleft asunder, and become rose red, like stained leather. (Quran; 55:37)
The Sun Will Expire after Some Time: And the sun runs to a fixed resting place. That is the decree of the Almighty, the All-Knowing. (Quran; 36:38)
“It is We Who have created you. Why, then, do you not accept the truth? Have you ever considered that [seed] which you emit? Is it you who create it? Or are We the Creator?” (Qur’an, 56:57-59)
The complex process of pregnancy from conception till child birth, discovered recently is accurately narrated in Qur’an;23:13-14.
It is found that the Qur’anic information on science does not conflict with the established scientific facts. It may go against certain scientific hypothesis or theories, which are not based on facts as many a times, the science retracts its position.
The scientific facts mentioned in Qur’an have been discovered during last few centuries. But science has not advanced to a level where it can confirm every statement of the Qur’an referring to scientific information. According to Dr.Zakir Naik; suppose 80% of all that is mentioned in the Qur’an has been proved 100% correct, while for the remaining 20%, science makes no categorical statement, since it has not advanced to a level, where it can either prove or disprove these statements. With the limited knowledge through science available today, one cannot say for sure whether even a single percentage or a single verse of the Qur’an from this 20% portion is wrong. Thus when 80% of the Qur’an is 100% correct and the remaining 20% is not disproved, logic says that even the 20% portion is correct. [The details of scientific facts mentioned in Qur’an have been deliberated upon in the book ‘Qur’an and Science’ by Dr.Zakir Naik & “The Bible, The Qur’an and Science” by Dr. Maurice Bucaille, a French doctor]. How an unlettered person brought up among the most backward desert Arabs, away from the centres of civilization and knowledge, could accurately provide the scientific information mostly discovered recently? It is God, the Creator alone Who could provide so accurate scientific information. Consequently as the scientific information mentioned in Qur’an is true then, by inference the other metaphysical information mentioned in Qur’an (correspondingly also in Bible) like; existence of God, angles, eschatology (death, judgment, heaven, hell, and the final destiny of the soul and of humankind) must also be true. Humanity has much more to learn from Qur’an if they ponder over it (Qur’an;38:29). 
Allah says: “This Book (Al-Qur’an) which We have sent down to you (O Muhammad) is highly blessed, so that they may ponder upon its verses and the men of understanding may learn a lesson from it.”(Qur’an;4:82).
It’s amazing; there is no doubt that Qur’an is a living miracle manifesting existence of The One Creator-Allah.

Conclusion:

Science is beginning to see the entire universe as a holographically interlinked network of energy and information. 
“Science is not the enemy of humanity but one of the deepest expressions of the human desire to realize that vision of infinite knowledge,” “Our capacity for fulfillment can come only through faith and feelings. But our capacity for survival must come from reason and knowledge.” Science, he warned, is not “as resilient as commerce, religion, or politics. It needs careful nurturing.” If humankind ultimately abandons science, it would be “an error that might cost us our existence.” [Pagels]
As Einstein said, “Raffiniert ist der Herrgott, aber boshaft ist er nicht!” or “The Lord is subtle, but he is not malicious!”  And as the mystic Maulana Rumi wrote around 800 years ago, “If you could get rid of yourself just once, the secret of secrets would open to you. The face of the unknown, hidden beyond the universe would appear on the mirror of your perception!”
Allah says in Quran: “Soon shall We show them Our signs in the universe and in their own selves, until it becomes clear to them that this Qur’an is indeed the truth. Is it not enough that your Lord is a witness over everything?”(Qur’an;41:53); “We did not create heaven and earth and everything between them to no purpose. That is the opinion of those who disbelieve…” (Qur’an; 38: 27), “Verily in the heavens and the earth are Signs for those who believe. (Qur’an; 45:3). “Let there be no compulsion in religion: Truth stands out clear from Error: whoever rejects evil and believes in God hath grasped the most trustworthy hand-hold, that never breaks. And God hears and knows all things.” (Qur’an; 2:255).
[References & weblinks are available at: http://aftabkhan.blog.com%5D
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Existance of God

 Here are 5ive straight-forward reasons to believe that God is really there.


proof of GodJust once wouldn’t you love for someone to simply show you the evidence for God’s existence? No arm-twisting. No statements of, “You just have to believe.” Well, here is an attempt to candidly offer some of the reasons which suggest that God exists.
But first consider this. When it comes to the possibility of God’s existence, the Bible says that there are people who have seen sufficient evidence, but they have suppressed the truth about God.1 On the other hand, for those who want to know God if he is there, he says, “You will seek me and find me; when you seek me with all your heart, I will be found by you.”2 Before you look at the facts surrounding God’s existence, ask yourself, If God does exist, would I want to know him? Here then, are some reasons to consider…
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1. The complexity of our planet points to a deliberate Designer who not only created our universe, but sustains it today.

Many examples showing God’s design could be given, possibly with no end. But here are a few:
The Earth…its size is perfect. The Earth’s size and corresponding gravity holds a thin layer of mostly nitrogen and oxygen gases, only extending about 50 miles above the Earth’s surface. If Earth were smaller, an atmosphere would be impossible, like the planet Mercury. If Earth were larger, its atmosphere would contain free hydrogen, like Jupiter.3 Earth is the only known planet equipped with an atmosphere of the right mixture of gases to sustain plant, animal and human life.
existence of GodThe Earth is located the right distance from the sun. Consider the temperature swings we encounter, roughly -30 degrees to +120 degrees. If the Earth were any further away from the sun, we would all freeze. Any closer and we would burn up. Even a fractional variance in the Earth’s position to the sun would make life on Earth impossible. The Earth remains this perfect distance from the sun while it rotates around the sun at a speed of nearly 67,000 mph. It is also rotating on its axis, allowing the entire surface of the Earth to be properly warmed and cooled every day.
And our moon is the perfect size and distance from the Earth for its gravitational pull. The moon creates important ocean tides and movement so ocean waters do not stagnate, and yet our massive oceans are restrained from spilling over across the continents.4
Water…colorless, odorless and without taste, and yet no living thing can survive without it. Plants, animals and human beings consist mostly of water (about two-thirds of the human body is water). You’ll see why the characteristics of water are uniquely suited to life:
It has an unusually high boiling point and freezing point. Water allows us to live in an environment of fluctuating temperature changes, while keeping our bodies a steady 98.6 degrees.
proof of GodWater is a universal solvent. This property of water means that various chemicals, minerals and nutrients can be carried throughout our bodies and into the smallest blood vessels.5
Water is also chemically neutral. Without affecting the makeup of the substances it carries, water enables food, medicines and minerals to be absorbed and used by the body.
Water has a unique surface tension. Water in plants can therefore flow upward against gravity, bringing life-giving water and nutrients to the top of even the tallest trees.
Water freezes from the top down and floats, so fish can live in the winter.
Ninety-seven percent of the Earth’s water is in the oceans. But on our Earth, there is a system designed which removes salt from the water and then distributes that water throughout the globe. Evaporation takes the ocean waters, leaving the salt, and forms clouds which are easily moved by the wind to disperse water over the land, for vegetation, animals and people. It is a system of purification and supply that sustains life on this planet, a system of recycled and reused water.6
The human brain…simultaneously processes an amazing amount of information. Your brain takes in all the colors and objects you see, the temperature around you, the pressure of your feet against the floor, the sounds around you, the dryness of your mouth, even the texture of your keyboard. Your brain holds and processes all your emotions, thoughts and memories. At the same time your brain keeps track of the ongoing functions of your body like your breathing pattern, eyelid movement, hunger and movement of the muscles in your hands.
existence of GodThe human brain processes more than a million messages a second.7 Your brain weighs the importance of all this data, filtering out the relatively unimportant. This screening function is what allows you to focus and operate effectively in your world. The brain functions differently than other organs. There is an intelligence to it, the ability to reason, to produce feelings, to dream and plan, to take action, and relate to other people.
The eye…can distinguish among seven million colors. It has automatic focusing and handles an astounding 1.5 million messages — simultaneously.8 Evolution focuses on mutations and changes from and within existing organisms. Yet evolution alone does not fully explain the initial source of the eye or the brain — the start of living organisms from nonliving matter.

2. The universe had a start – what caused it?

Scientists are convinced that our universe began with one enormous explosion of energy and light, which we now call the Big Bang. This was the singular start to everything that exists: the beginning of the universe, the start of space, and even the initial start of time itself.
Astrophysicist Robert Jastrow, a self-described agnostic, stated, “The seed of everything that has happened in the Universe was planted in that first instant; every star, every planet and every living creature in the Universe came into being as a result of events that were set in motion in the moment of the cosmic explosion…The Universe flashed into being, and we cannot find out what caused that to happen.”9
Steven Weinberg, a Nobel laureate in Physics, said at the moment of this explosion, “the universe was about a hundred thousands million degrees Centigrade…and the universe was filled with light.”10
The universe has not always existed. It had a start…what caused that? Scientists have no explanation for the sudden explosion of light and matter.

3. The universe operates by uniform laws of nature. Why does it?

Much of life may seem uncertain, but look at what we can count on day after day: gravity remains consistent, a hot cup of coffee left on a counter will get cold, the earth rotates in the same 24 hours, and the speed of light doesn’t change — on earth or in galaxies far from us.
How is it that we can identify laws of nature that never change? Why is the universe so orderly, so reliable?
“The greatest scientists have been struck by how strange this is. There is no logical necessity for a universe that obeys rules, let alone one that abides by the rules of mathematics. This astonishment springs from the recognition that the universe doesn’t have to behave this way. It is easy to imagine a universe in which conditions change unpredictably from instant to instant, or even a universe in which things pop in and out of existence.”11
Richard Feynman, a Nobel Prize winner for quantum electrodynamics, said, “Why nature is mathematical is a mystery…The fact that there are rules at all is a kind of miracle.”12

4. The DNA code informs, programs a cell’s behavior.

existence of GodAll instruction, all teaching, all training comes with intent. Someone who writes an instruction manual does so with purpose. Did you know that in every cell of our bodies there exists a very detailed instruction code, much like a miniature computer program? As you may know, a computer program is made up of ones and zeros, like this: 110010101011000. The way they are arranged tell the computer program what to do. The DNA code in each of our cells is very similar. It’s made up of four chemicals that scientists abbreviate as A, T, G, and C. These are arranged in the human cell like this: CGTGTGACTCGCTCCTGAT and so on. There are three billion of these letters in every human cell!!
Well, just like you can program your phone to beep for specific reasons, DNA instructs the cell. DNA is a three-billion-lettered program telling the cell to act in a certain way. It is a full instruction manual.13
existence of GodWhy is this so amazing? One has to ask….how did this information program wind up in each human cell? These are not just chemicals. These are chemicals that instruct, that code in a very detailed way exactly how the person’s body should develop.
Natural, biological causes are completely lacking as an explanation when programmed information is involved. You cannot find instruction, precise information like this, without someone intentionally constructing it.

5. We know God exists because he pursues us. He is constantly initiating and seeking for us to come to him.

I was an atheist at one time. And like many atheists, the issue of people believing in God bothered me greatly. What is it about atheists that we would spend so much time, attention, and energy refuting something that we don’t believe even exists?! What causes us to do that? When I was an atheist, I attributed my intentions as caring for those poor, delusional people…to help them realize their hope was completely ill-founded. To be honest, I also had another motive. As I challenged those who believed in God, I was deeply curious to see if they could convince me otherwise. Part of my quest was to become free from the question of God. If I could conclusively prove to believers that they were wrong, then the issue is off the table, and I would be free to go about my life.
proof of GodI didn’t realize that the reason the topic of God weighed so heavily on my mind, was because God was pressing the issue. I have come to find out that God wants to be known. He created us with the intention that we would know him. He has surrounded us with evidence of himself and he keeps the question of his existence squarely before us. It was as if I couldn’t escape thinking about the possibility of God. In fact, the day I chose to acknowledge God’s existence, my prayer began with, “Ok, you win…” It might be that the underlying reason atheists are bothered by people believing in God is because God is actively pursuing them.
I am not the only one who has experienced this. Malcolm Muggeridge, socialist and philosophical author, wrote, “I had a notion that somehow, besides questing, I was being pursued.” C.S. Lewis said he remembered, “…night after night, feeling whenever my mind lifted even for a second from my work, the steady, unrelenting approach of Him whom I so earnestly desired not to meet. I gave in, and admitted that God was God, and knelt and prayed: perhaps, that night, the most dejected and reluctant convert in all of England.”
Lewis went on to write a book titled, “Surprised by Joy” as a result of knowing God. I too had no expectations other than rightfully admitting God’s existence. Yet over the following several months, I became amazed by his love for me.
Extract from article By Marilyn Adamson : http://www.everystudent.com/features/isthere.html?gclid=CNLn6vawxbgCFZLItAod6GgAyA

“Soon shall We show them Our signs in the universe and in their own selves, until it becomes clear to them that this Qur’an is indeed the truth. Is it not enough that your Lord is a witness over everything?” (Qur’an;41:53); “We did not create heaven and earth and everything between them to no purpose. That is the opinion of those who disbelieve..” (Qur’an; 38: 27), “Verily in the heavens and the earth are Signs for those who believe. (Qur’an; 45:3). “To God belongs the Mystery of the heavens and the earth. And the Decision of the Hour (of Judgement) is as the twinkling of an eye, or even quicker: for God hath power over all things.” (Qur’an; 16:77). “Let there be no compulsion in religion: Truth stands out clear from Error: whoever rejects evil and believes in God hath grasped the most trustworthy hand-hold, that never breaks. And God hears and knows all things.” (Qur’an; 2:255).

The Bible claims that the God of the Bible exists and is the one true God.

Genesis 1:1 – In the beginning God created the heavens and the earth.

Hebrews 11:6 – We must believe that God exists.

Deuteronomy 4:35,39; 6:4 – The God who claims to speak through the Bible is the one and only true God.

Mark 12:29 – “The most important one,” answered Jesus, “is this: ‘Hear, O Israel: The Lord our God, the Lord is one.

1 Corinthians 8:4-6 – So then, about eating food sacrificed to idols: We know that “An idol is nothing at all in the world” and that “There is no God but one.”

James 2:19 – You believe that there is one God. Good! Even the demons believe that–and shudder.

1 Timothy 2:5 – For there is one God and one mediator between God and mankind, the man Christ Jesus

[See also Isaiah 43:10-13; 44:6-8,24; 45:5,6,14,18,21-23; 52:6; Matthew 4:10; 2 Samuel 7:22; 1 Chronicles 17:20; Exodus 20:3-6; 34:14; Deuteronomy 6:13-15; 32:39; Psalm 86:10; Zech 14:9]

Christians – Can You Pass ‘The Jesus Test’?

Who Really Follows Jesus? Take the Test & see This “Test” was designed by former Christian and now Muslim chaplain, Yusuf Estes from Texas. He asks us to take the test and find out once and for all:
Christians Claim – Jesus is “Son of God” 
Muslims Say – Jesus is a “Prophet of God:
 
 But the Real Question is – 
 
Who Really Follows Jesus?”  <>>


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Children of Abraham

abraham
  “Abraham “believed God, and it was reckoned to him as righteousness  (Genesis 15:6).
“If you are Abraham’s children, do the deeds of Abraham.” (Jesus,  John; 8:39)
 ” So you see that it is men of faith who are the sons of Abraham.”(Galatians;3:6-7),


“..I serve the God of our fathers, believing all things which are according to the law, and which are written in the prophets; having hope toward God, which these also themselves look for, that there will be a resurrection of the dead, both of the just and unjust.[Paul; Acts;24:14-15]

“Abraham was not a Jew, nor yet a Christian; but he was an upright man who had surrendered (to God), and he was not of the idolaters. Lo! those of mankind who have the best claim to Abraham are those who followed him, and this Prophet (Mohammad) and those who believe (with him); and God is the Protecting Friend of the believers.”[Qur’an;3:67-68]

Introduction:
 Abraham is estimated to have lived in early 2nd Millennia B.C (around 1800 BC) at Ur (Mesopotamia) Iraq. He is the common ancestor and spiritual leader of Muslims, Christians and Jews alike, also revered by people of other faiths. He discovered the existence of One God through his intellect, thought process and with grace of God. Allah says: “So also did We show Abraham the power and the laws of the heavens and the earth that he might (with understanding) have certitude. When the night covered him over he (Abraham) saw a star: he said: “this is my Lord!”  But when it set he said: “I love not those that set.” When he saw the moon rising in splendor He said: “This is my Lord!” but when the moon set he said: “Unless my Lord guide me I shall surely be among those who go astray.” When he saw the sun rising in splendor he said: “This is my Lord! this is the greatest (of all).”  But when the sun set he said: “O my people! I am (now) free from your (guilt) of giving partners to Allah. “For me I have set my face firmly and truly toward Him Who created the heavens and the earth, and never shall I give partners to Allah.”(Qur’an;6:75-79);“And he believed the LORD; and he reckoned it to him as righteousness.”(Genesis:15:6). Once he was appointed the Messenger of Allah, he was blessed with special favours. Prophet Abraham (peace be upon him) invited the people to Islam (submission to one God):” When his people started arguing with him, he told them: “Will you argue with me about Allah, whereas He Himself has guided me? I do not fear those whom you take for gods besides Him, none can harm me unless my Lord so wills, the knowledge of my Lord encompasses everything, why don’t you get admonition?(Qur’an;6:80). Allah says: “It is those who believe and confuse not their beliefs with wrong that are (truly) in security for they are on (right) guidance. That was the reasoning about Us which We gave to Abraham (to use) against his people: We raise whom We will degree after degree: for thy Lord is full of wisdom and knowledge.”(Qur’an;6:82-83).  

Trial:

Prophet Abraham (peace be upon him) was successful in the trial, he was childless, he was granted sons at old age, Ishmael, from his second wife Hager, and later Isaac (Ishaq) from his first wife Sara. According to an Islamic tradition he left Ishmael at Makka while he was older enough. The other tradition narrates that he had to leave the infant Isma’il and his mother at a far off place in desert (Makka). They miraculously survived due to water of spring (Zamzam). Abraham’s faith was so great that later he went to obey God’s com­mand to sacrifice his only son (Ishmael), however at the last minute; God permitted him to substitute a ram. Muslim tradition identifies the son to be sacrificed as Ishmael (Biblical traditions claim, Isaac). Prophet Abraham (peace be upon him) again came to Makka to rebuilt the first house of Allah, Ka’ba with Isma’il as a sign of God’s covenant with them and established the rituals of pilgrimage (Hajj). Allah says: “And when Abraham and Ishmael were raising the foundations of the House, (Abraham prayed): Our Lord! Accept from us (this duty). Lo! Thou, only Thou, art the Hearer, the Knower.”(Qur’an;2:127).

Who was offered for Sacrifice?
A controversy has raged between the followers of the Bible and the adherents of Islam as to which of the sons of Abraham, Ishmael or Isaac was offered as a sacrifice. It is important to note that, a peculiar sanctity was attached to the first-born both of man and of cattle among people right since the time of Adam, it was especially of great importance among the Israelites. God claimed that the first-born males of man and of animals should be consecrated to him, the one as a priest (Exodus;19:22,24), representing the family to which he belonged, and the other to be offered up in sacrifice (Geneis;4:4). The laws concerning this redemption of the first-born of man are recorded in Exodus;13:12-15; 22:29; 34:20; Numbers;3:45; 8:17; 18:16 and Leviticus;12:2,4. Even the first-fruits of the ground were offered unto God just as the first-born of man and animals. Ishmael, without any doubt was first born son of Prophet Abraham  (peace be upon him). The Bible is quite clear in designating the offering: “He said, “Take your son, your only son Isaac, whom you love, and go to the land of Mori’ah, and offer him there as a burnt offering upon one of the mountains of which I shall tell you.”(Genesis;22:2). If at anytime, an offspring of Prophet Abraham  (peace be upon him) can be described as “thine only son: it could only be Ishmael, because for more than thirteen years, he was the only son and seed of Abraham. God Almighty acknowledges Ishmael as the “son and seed” of Abraham in no less than twelve places in the Book of Genesis alone. At no time was Isaac the only son and seed of Abraham. The false pen of the scribe was in the hand of the Hebrews who edited the Books of Moses, as the prophet Jeremiah lament: “How do ye say, We are wise, and the law (the Torah) of the Lord is with us? Lo, certainly in vain made he it; the pen of the scribe is in vain.”(Jeremiah;8:8). When the Hebrews are found to convert an Israelite into an Ishmaelite when no motives are involved, then how much easier for them to change the word “you only son Ishmael” to : your only son Isaac!”
Covenant and Iniquitous Decedents:
Prophet Abraham (peace be upon him) is the original monotheist in the known history, purifier of God’s house, builder of the Ka’ba, and a Muslim (having surrendered to the will of God), who preached against idolatry and sin. The scripture of revelations to Abraham is mentioned in Qur’an;53:36-37 & 87:18-19, which is now extinct, though ‘Testament of Abraham’ had been popular among Christians. He destroyed the idols and survived attempt by the king to burn him alive. After successful trials he was rewarded by God for his faith and given a position of spiritual lead­ership of the mankind, to be passed down to his descendants, excluding the wrong doers (Qur’an;2:124). Allah says: “Do they, perchance, envy other people for what God has granted them out of His bounty? But then, We did grant revelation and wisdom unto the House of Abraham (aal Ibraahem– Descendants), and We did bestow on them a mighty dominion:”(Qur’an;4:54). The descendants obviously include the progeny of Ishmael and Isaac (peace be upon them). The claim of the children of Israel as “Chosen People of God” by virtue of their decent from Abraham, who was made “a leader of mankind” by God, was totally negated. God makes it clear that the exalted status of Prophet Abraham (peace be upon him) was not something that would automatically confer a comparable status on this physical descendants, and definitely not on the sinners among them. God also took solemn pledge from the Children of Israel and those call themselves as Christians, but they broke it. Allah says: ““Remember Allah’s favor to you and the covenant by which He bound you to Himself when you said: “We hear and we obey.” Have fear of God; surely God knows the secrets of your hearts.”(Qur’an;5:7); “God accepted a covenant from the Children of Israel and appointed twelve chieftains from among them and said: “I am with you; if you establish Prayers (Salah) pay Alms (Zakah), believe in My Messengers, support them and give a generous loan to Allah (spend in charity), I will wipe out from you your evils and admit you to gardens with rivers flowing beneath; However, if any one of you, after this, violates this covenant, he will indeed go astray from the Right Way. Even after that, they broke their covenant; as a result, We laid on them Our curse and hardened their hearts. They tempered with words out of their context and neglected much of what they were enjoined. You will always find most of them deceitful except for a few of them. Yet forgive them and overlook their misdeeds. Allah loves those who are kind to others.”(Qur’an;5:12-13). Prophet Abraham (peace be upon him) settled at Palestine, he died at very old age and was buried in Hebron, near Jerusalem.

True Faithful:
Prophet Abraham (peace be upon him) was the true faithful, Allah says: “And who, unless he be weak of mind, would want to abandon Abraham’s creed, seeing that We have indeed raised him high in this world, and that, verily, in the life to come he shall be among the righteous? When his Sustainer said to him, “Surrender thyself unto Me!”-he answered, “I have surrendered myself unto [Thee,] the Sustainer of all the worlds.” And this very thing did Abraham bequeath unto his children, and [so did] Jacob: when he said: “O my sons! Allah has chosen for you this way of life (Deen), therefore, die not unless you have surrendered yourself un to Him. “Nay, but you [yourselves, O children of Israel,] bear witness that when death was approaching Jacob, he said unto his sons: “Whom will you worship after I am gone?” They answered: “We will worship thy God, the God of thy forefathers Abraham and Ishmael and Isaac, the One God; and unto Him w1ll we surrender ourselves.”(Qur’an;2:130-133).
The Biblical Account:
The narrative of Prophet Abraham (peace be upon him) is given in the book of Genesis, chapter 12 to 36. The childless septuagenarian receives promises. He gets a son, Ishmael, by Hagar, given to him as his wife by his wife Sara: “And Sarai, Abram’s wife, took Hagar the Egyptian, her handmaid, after Abram had dwelt ten years in the land of Canaan, and gave her to Abram her husband to be his wife.”(Genesis:16:3). [Hagar was an Egyptian princess according to Jewish traditions] .  Out of jealously Sara forces her to leave with young son Ishmael in to wilderness, where angel appears to tell her: “Arise, lift up the lad (Ishmael), and hold him in thy hand. For I will make him a great nation.”(Genesis:21:18). (According to a Muslim traditions, infant Ishmael along with his mother Hagar was left in the wilderness at Makka, an uninhabited place at that time, who subsequently become the ancestor of Arabs. Muhammad, peace be upon him, the last Prophet, belongs to the progeny of Ishmael.) 
Prophet Abraham (peace be upon him) is awarded with a covenant from God that his “seed” will inherit the land and become a numerous nation: “And I will establish my covenant between me and you and your descendants after you throughout their generations for an everlasting covenant, to be God to you and to your descendants after you.  And I will give to you, and to your descendants after you, the land of your sojourning, all the land of Canaan, for an everlasting possession; and I will be their God.” And God said to Abraham, “As for you, you shall keep my covenant, you and your descendants after you throughout their generations. This is my covenant, which you shall keep, between me and you and your descendants after you: Every male among you shall be circumcised.”(Genesis;17:7-10); “And God said, Nay, but Sarah thy wife shall bear thee a son; and thou shalt call his name Isaac: and I will establish my covenant with him for an everlasting covenant for his seed after him. And as for Ishmael, I have heard thee: behold, I have blessed him, and will make him fruitful, and will multiply him exceedingly; twelve princes shall he beget, and I will make him a great nation. But my covenant will I establish with Isaac, whom Sarah shall bear unto thee at this set time in the next year. And he left off talking with him, and God went up from Abraham. (Genesis;17:19-22).
Conclusion:
At the age of 100 years, Prophet Abraham (peace be upon him) gets a son Isaac, by Sarah, who is to be the heir of the promise. Yet Abraham is ready to obey God’s command to sacrifice Isaac, a test of his faith, which he is not required to consummate in the end because God substitutes a ram. [Muslim traditions and internal evidence from Bible about age of child and timings support that it was Ishmael not Isaac]. At Sarah’s death, he purchases the cave of Machpelah near Hebron, together with the adjoining ground, as a family burying place. Prophet Abraham (peace be upon him) dies at the age of 175 and buried in the cave of Machpelah (Genesis;25:9). This place is venerated today in Hebron, at the Haram al-Khalil (Holy Place of the Friend), under the mosque. Abraham is pictured in Bible with various characteristics: a righteous man, with wholehearted commitment to God; a man of peace (in settling a boundary dispute with his nephew Lot), compassionate (he argues and bargains with God to spare the people of Sodom and Gomorrah), and hospitable (he welcomes three visiting angels); a quick-acting warrior as he rescued Lot and his family from a raiding party, however on his return from this expedition, Abraham is honored by Melchizedek, a personality with unique characteristics, portrayed by Bible, even superior to Adam and Prophet Jesus (peace be upon him): “For this Melchizedek, king of Salem, priest of the Most High God, met Abraham returning from the slaughter of the kings and blessed him; and to him Abraham apportioned a tenth part of everything. He is first, by translation of his name, king of righteousness, and then he is also king of Salem, that is, king of peace. He is without father or mother or genealogy, and has neither beginning of days nor end of life, but resembling the Son of God he continues a priest for ever. See how great he is! Abraham the patriarch gave him a tithe of the spoils.”(Hebrews;7:1-4); “And Melchizedek king of Salem brought out bread and wine; he was priest of God Most High. And he blessed him and said, “Blessed be Abram by God Most High, maker of heaven and earth; and blessed be God Most High, who has delivered your enemies into your hand!”(Genesis;14:18-20). “The LORD hath sworn, and will not repent, Thou art a priest for ever after the order of Melchizedek.”(Psalms;110:4). Prophet Abraham (peace be upon him) is also depicted as giving wrong statement to save his own skin: “And Abraham said of Sarah his wife, She is my sister. And Abimelech king of Gerar sent, and took Sarah.”(Geneses;20:2). The incidence of Abraham  passing off Sarah as his sister [in faith, and step relationship acceptable then] and letting her be picked by the Egyptian pharaoh for his harem, but she miraculously returns unmolested due to her piety and prayers accepted by God, with Hagar given as gift, has also been Narrated by Abu Hurairah in Sahih Al Bukhari Hadith 3.420 & 4.578. Overall Abraham appears as both a man of great spiritual depth and strength and a person with human limitations and needs. 
 
Related:
Hager: An Egyptian Princess

Hagar hay’gahr (HebrewהָגָרModern Hagar Tiberian Hāgār, meaning “uncertain”;  GreekΆγαρ AgarLatinAgarArabicهاجر;‎ Hājar) is a biblical person in the Book of Genesis Chapter 16. Rabbinical commentators asserted that Hagar was Pharaoh‘s daughter. The midrash Genesis Rabbah states it was when Sarah was in Pharaoh’s harem that he gave her his daughter Hagar as slave, saying: “It is better that my daughter should be a slave in the house of such a woman than mistress in another house”. Sarah treated Hagar well, and induced women who came to visit her to visit Hagar also. She became wife of  Abram (Abraham) to bear a child. Thus came the firstborn, Ishmael, the patriarch of the Ishmaelites. The name Hagar originates from the Book of Genesis, is mentioned in Hadith, and alluded to in the Qur’an. She is revered in the Islamic faith and acknowledged in all Abrahamic faiths. keep reading >>>>>

 

The God of Muslims and Christians

The 9/11 has further widened the gulf between the followers of two main faiths of the world. Although Islam like Christianity or any other religion has nothing to do with the acts of few desperate heretics [takfiri in this case] using terror and violence as a tool to achieve their political objectives under the garb of religion. However now a days it is trendy to claim that the God of Muslims is different to the God of Christians. The rhetoric of the myth gave a tacitly playful acknowledgement of the existence of two Gods, but the question was understood as not asking about the existence of two actual Gods, but whether or not Christians and Muslims were imagining the same being; the entity who would be the one true GodBut it is not that simple either, because one may say that he believes in the one true God, who happens to be a wrestling with some one, or walking. One may talk of the “one true God” and mean the same thing as others think as far as the term itself goes, but it does not highlight the characteristics of God, which they would not agree on. Hence the question should not be phrased causally as; “Do Christians and Muslims worship the same God?” (as we can agree there could only be one God), but instead: “Do Christians and Muslims perceive a God with either identical or similar enough characteristics to be called the same Being?”
Perceptions:
Generally people tend to relegate the divine to an object of speculation due to their knowledge based upon intellect and common sensual perceptions. Generally people have no doubts about anything that they can perceive through their senses, which is accepted as the fundamental truth. However, if one is in the desert at noon and see a lake in the distance, but only finds sand when reaches that area, what appeared to be a lake turned out to be mirage. Likewise if a pencil is placed in a glass of water it will look as if it is broken, though in actual fact it is not. In a late night gathering, if the people start discussing about the supernatural-ghosts, while traveling back home, many get so carried away that they feel as if a ghost or demon is following them, whereas in reality it is just an illusion. A magician will produce strange objects which seem to be real, even though they are not. Hence human senses can be deceptive, but does this mean that people should doubt the existence of something they can feel? Quite the reverse because if they doubt what they see, hear and feel, there will be a conflict between fact and fantasy that will eventually drive them nuts. But another condition may be added here about obtaining knowledge – meaning, certainty regarding the existence of what is sensed. The mind may misjudge something the first time it perceives it. For example, it may think a mirage is a lake, but the second time it sees it will not make the mistake. Similarly it will soon realize that even though the pencil on the glass of water looks broken, in fact it is not. The various ways in which the senses delude us are limited and easy to recognize. This includes the tricks that magicians perform and the circus activities.
Any theological exposition which carries the idea of God, somewhat frivolously, reshaping God as an object to be discussed, is against God’s transcendence [beyond the ordinary range of human perception]. It must be appreciated that such approach may lead to erroneous conclusions. Consequently when people articulate God in such a manner, they do not speak of God, but of an idol, with what ever ‘name’ they choose. However much one may wish to accurately know of God, the divine is something that cannot be comprehended by humans in totality due to limitations of human perception, but allegory makes the incomprehensible as comprehensible. Thus many people may perceive God, in their own way depending upon his [or her] level of intellect, perceptions and knowledge, though openly may be claiming to follow a specific creed. Thus the question as to who is right and who is wrong depends upon the parameters and perceptions.
Defining God & Attributes:
“Hence, do not coin any similitude for God! Verily, God knows [all], whereas you have no [real] knowledge.”[Qur’an;16:74]
Since “definition” is, in the last resort, equivalent to a delimitation of the qualities of the object thus to be defined in relation to, or in comparison with, another object or objects: God, however, is “sublimely exalted above anything that men may devise by way of definition “Do not blaspheme against God by regarding anyone or anything as comparable with Him, or by trying to define Him in any terms whatsoever”
“And yet, some [people] have come to attribute to all manner of invisible beings a place side by side with God -although it is He who has created them [all]; and in their ignorance they have invented for Him sons and daughters! Limitless is He is His glory, and sublimely exalted above anything that men may devise by way of definition:”[Qur’an:6:100]
Utterly remote is He from all imperfection and from the incompleteness which is implied in the concept of having progeny. The very concept of “definition” implies the possibility of a comparison or correlation of an object with other objects; God, however, is unique, there being “nothing like unto Him” (Qur’an;42:11) and, therefore, “nothing that could be compared with Him” (Qur’an;112:4) – with the result that any attempt at defining Him or His “attributes” is a logical impossibility and, from the ethical point of view, a sin. The fact that He is undefinable makes it clear that the “attributes” (sifat) of God mentioned in the Qur’an do not circumscribe His reality but, rather, the perceptible effect of His activity on and within the universe created by Him. [Excerpts; ‘The Message of Qur’an’ by Muhammad Asad]
Brief Description of Names of God & His Titles in Bible:

Monotheism has been clearly emphasized in Bible, the verse from the book of Deuteronomy contains an exhortation from Moses (peace be upon him):”Shama Israelu Adonai Ila Hayno Adna Ikhad“. It is a Hebrew quotation which means: “Hear, O Israel: The Lord our God is one Lord”(Deuteronomy;6:4, Isaiah;43:11, 45:5,46:9). Jesus (peace be upon him) also said: “Shama Israelu Adonai Ila Hayno Adna Ikhad ”[“Hear, O Israel: The Lord our God is one Lord”](Mark;12:29), “..There is none good but one, that is, God..”(Mathew;19:17).  Qur’an says: “Your God is one God; there is no one worthy of worship except Him, the Compassionate, the Merciful.” (Qur’an;2:163). The monotheism in Islam is called Tawhid in Arabic; Allah, the One and Only God. Allah says:, “Say: He is Allah the One and Only; God the Eternal, the Uncaused Cause of All Being ; He begets not, and neither is He begotten; And there is nothing that can be  compared with Him.”(Qur’an;112:1-4). Attributes of Allah has been mentioned at many places in Qur’an some references are Qur’an; 2:255, 59:22-24, 42:11-12, 11:6, 6:59, 31:34, 4:164, 7:143, 31:27, 6:115, 4:87, 2:133). Similarly according to Bible, God says: “Thou shalt have no other gods before me.” “Thou shalt not make unto thee any graven image, or any likeness of anything that is in heaven above, or that is in the earth beneath, or that is in the water under the earth:” “Thou shalt not bow down thyself to them, nor serve them: for I the Lord thy God am a jealous God.”(Exodus; 3:15, 20:3-5, Deuteronomy 5:7-9, 1Timothy;2:5).
Jesus cried out in a loud voice: “Eli, Eli, lema sabachthani?” (“My God, my God, why have you forsaken me?”).[Mathew 27:46., Mark 15:34]

God has been addressed with different names in Bible, the most prominent one are mentioned here ….. keep reading http://faithforum.wordpress.com/2009/11/25/god-of-muslims-and-christians/

 
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Christ in Islam – Videos

This is an interesting lecture in which Sh. Ahmad Deedat talks about prestige of Jesus Christ in Islam, miracles of his birth, message and death. Sh. Deedat shows the Islamic creed’s attitude towards Jesus Christ and refutes the allegations of those who have been trying to distort Jesus Christ’s image in Islam. At the end, Sh. Deedat answers some questions of the viewers.